From Proto-Indo-European *dʰegʷʰ- (“to burn”) (the un-aspirated first consonant is due to Grassman's Law). Cognates include Latin foveō, Albanian djeg, Old Church Slavonic жєщи (žešti), Lithuanian degti, Avestan 𐬛𐬀𐬲𐬀𐬌𐬙𐬌 (dažaiti), and Sanskrit दहति (dahati).
- (5th BC Attic): IPA: /tépʰra͜a/
- (1st BC Egyptian): IPA: /tɛ́pʰraː/
- (4th AD Koine): IPA: /téɸra/
- (10th AD Byzantine): IPA: /téfra/
- (15th AD Constantinopolitan): IPA: /téfɾa/
- ashes, as of the funeral pire.