Last modified on 26 May 2014, at 17:58




From Proto-Indo-European *h₃rdʰwo- (high, upright). Cognates include Ancient Greek ὀρθός (orthós) and Latin arduus. Morphologically formed from verbal root वर्धति (√vṛdh, to grow, elevate).


ऊर्ध्व (ūrdhvá)

  1. rising or tending upwards, raised, elevated, erected, erect, upright, high, above
    • RV 1.36.13
      ऊर्ध्व ऊ षु ण ऊतये तिष्ठा देवो न सविता |
      ऊर्ध्वोवाजस्य सनिता यदञ्जिभिर्वाघद्भिर्विह्वयामहे ||
      ūrdhva ū ṣu ṇa ūtaye tiṣṭhā devo na savitā |
      ūrdhvovājasya sanitā yadañjibhirvāghadbhirvihvayāmahe ||
      Stand up erect to lend us aid, stand up like Savitar the God:
      Erect as strength-bestower we call aloud, with unguents and with priests, on thee.


Usage notesEdit

In Classical Sanskrit occurring chiefly in compounds.


ऊर्ध्व (ūrdhván

  1. height, elevation
  2. anything placed above or higher (+ ablative)
    ऊर्ध्वं (ūrdhvaṃ)-गच्छति (√gam) — to go upwards or into heaven, die



ऊर्ध्व (ūrdhvá)

  1. in the sequel, in the later part (e.g. of a book or manuscript; because in Sanskrit manuscripts the later leaves stand above), subsequent, after (with ablative)
    अत ऊर्ध्वम् (ata ūrdhvam), or इत ऊर्ध्वम् (ita ūrdhvam) — hence forward, from that time forward, after that passage, hereafter
    ऊर्ध्वं संवत्सरात् (ūrdhvaṃ saṃvatsarāt) — after a year
    ऊर्ध्वं देहात् (ūrdhvaṃ dehāt), — after life, after death
  2. after, after the death of (+ ablative)
    ऊर्ध्वं पितुः (ūrdhvaṃ pituḥ) — after the father's death
  3. in a high tone, aloud