Last modified on 28 March 2015, at 23:45

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
中-bw.png
Stroke order
中-order.gif

Han characterEdit

(radical 2 +3, 4 strokes, cangjie input 中 (L), four-corner 50006, composition)

  1. center, middle
  2. central
  3. in the midst of, during (a period of time)
  4. (abbreviation) China, Chinese
  5. hit (target)
  6. attain

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 79, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 73
  • Dae Jaweon: page 158, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 28, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+4E2D

ChineseEdit

-
simp. and trad.

EtymologyEdit

Old Chinese *trjəngʷ (Li Fanggui (1971)). Cognate with Old Tibetan གཞུང (gzhung, middle, center).[1]

Pictogram (象形) a vertical stroke passing throught the center of , indicating the center. Originally a pictograph of a string heddle . It is also interpreted as a flagpole piercing the middle of a frame or an arrow in the center of a target.

中 中 中 中
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script

Pronunciation 1Edit


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (中), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: 知 (9)
Final: 東
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 陟弓切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ʈɨuŋ/ /ȶi̯uŋ/ /ȶiuŋ/ /ʈiuŋ/ /ʈuwŋ/ /ȶĭuŋ/ /ȶiuŋ/
Character (中), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: 知 (9)
Final: 東
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie: 陟仲切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ʈɨuŋH/ /ȶi̯uŋH/ /ȶiuŋH/ /ʈiuŋH/ /ʈuwŋH/ /ȶĭuŋH/ /ȶiuŋH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
zhōng ‹ trjuwng › /*truŋ/ center
zhòng ‹ trjuwngH › /*truŋ-s/ hit the center

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
17407 0 /*tuŋ/
17410 0 /*tuŋs/

NounEdit

  1. middle, center

AdjectiveEdit

  1. medium, intermediary
    夾克3大小 [MSC, trad.]
    夹克3大小 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhè jiàn jiākè yǒu 3 ge dàxiǎo hào. Xiǎo, zhōng, dà. [Pinyin]
    You can get the jacket in three sizes - small, medium and large.
  2. (dialect) all right, OK

PrepositionEdit

  1. within, among, in
    受傷15女孩 [MSC, trad.]
    受伤15女孩 [MSC, simp.]
    Shòushāng zhě zhōng yǒu yī wèi 15 suì de nǚhái. [Pinyin]
    A fifteen year old girl was among the injured.
  2. while, in the process of, during, in the middle of
    事故受傷 [MSC, trad.]
    事故受伤 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā zài shìgù zhōng shòushāng. [Pinyin]
    He was injured in the accident
    出生暴風雨 [MSC, trad.]
    出生暴风雨 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā chūshēng zài yī chǎng bàofēngyǔ zhōng. [Pinyin]
    She was born in the middle of a rain storm.

Proper nounEdit

  1. China, Chinese
    /   ―  zhōngguó  ―  China
  2. A surname​. Zhong
CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 2Edit


VerbEdit

  1. to hit the mark, to be correct, to be successful
  2. to be hit by, to suffer, to be affected by
    一次伏擊警察身亡 [MSC, trad.]
    一次伏击警察身亡 [MSC, simp.]
    Yīcì fújī zhōng yī míng jǐngchá zhōng dàn shēnwáng. [Pinyin]
    A policeman has been shot dead in an ambush.
    試圖肩膀 [MSC, trad.]
    试图肩膀 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā shìtú pá zǒu shí jiānbǎng zhōng qiāng le. [Pinyin]
    As he tried to crawl away, he was hit in the shoulder.
  3. to win (a prize, a lottery)
CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana なか, romaji naka)

  1. inside
  2. middle

(hiragana ちゅう, romaji chū)

  1. middle
  2. during
  3. being in the process of doing
  4. second volume of a three volume set

(hiragana うち, romaji uchi)

(うち, uchi)
(うち, uchi)
内 is the most common kanji for this pronunciation.
  1. inside

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana ちゅう, romaji Chū)

  1. short form for China or Chinese, Sino- (prefix)
    日中関係 (にっちゅうかんけい)
    Nitchū kankei
    Sino-Japanese relations

(hiragana あたり, romaji Atari)

  1. A surname​.

(hiragana なか, romaji Naka)

  1. A surname​.

(hiragana あたる, romaji Ataru)

  1. A female given name

SuffixEdit

(hiragana じゅう, romaji -jū)

  1. during, in the course of, throughout
  2. all over, everywhere

(hiragana ちゅう, romaji -chū)

  1. being in the process of doing

Usage notesEdit

The distinction between じゅう () and ちゅう (chū) is somewhat confusing: じゅう means throughout, in all places, as in 一日中 (ichinichijū, “all day long”) or 体中 (karadajū, “throughout the body”), while ちゅう means within, but not everywhere, as in 授業中 (jugyōchū, “in class, during class”). Contrast “I worked on this all day long” with “I worked on this in class (but not necessarily for the entire time)”.


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(jung)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: jung, McCune-Reischauer: chung, Yale: cwung)
  • Name (hangeul): 가운데 (revised: gaunde, McCune-Reischauer: kaunde, Yale: kawuntey)
  1. the middle, the center, the heart, the midst

CompoundsEdit

NounEdit

(jung) (hangeul )

  1. Hanja form? of , “the middle, medium, during”.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(trung, trong, truông, đúng, trúng, truồng)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

ReferencesEdit

  • ^ 《汉藏语同源词综探》,全广镇