Last modified on 3 April 2015, at 18:38

See also: and

TranslingualEdit

EtymologyEdit

Pictogram (象形) – a square well, with supports on four sides, and a dot in the middle for the water. Compare .

Han characterEdit

(radical 3 +4, 5 strokes, cangjie input 廿廿戈 (TTI), four-corner 55000, composition)

SynonymsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 81, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 101
  • Dae Jaweon: page 164, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 45, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+4E3C

ChineseEdit

-
simp. and trad.

PronunciationEdit


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (丼), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 端 (5)
Final: 覃
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Rising (X)

Fanqie: 都感切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/tʌmX/ /tămX/ /tᴀmX/ /təmX/ /təmX/ /tɒmX/ /tɒmX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
jǐng ‹ tsjengX › /*C.tseŋʔ/ a well

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
2041 3 /*kloːmʔ'/ 集韻又義與𣿅合,吳方言作澸今字
6853 0 /*skeŋʔ/ 說文井字

NounEdit

  1. variant of '井'
  2. bowl of food
  3. well
  4. Sound of something falling in a well. Ref: 《集韻》:「丼:投物井中聲。」
  5. Throwing or littering something to lower position.

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
(donburi): a large donburi bowl.
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
(donburi, don): a serving of gyūdon or beef donburi.
(donburi, don): a serving of tendon or tempura donburi.
(donburi, don): a serving of oyakodon or chicken and egg donburi.
Kanji in this term
どんぶり
Grade: S
kun'yomi

Multiple possible derivations.

  • During the Edo period, restaurants specializing in large portions were called 慳貪屋 (kendon'ya), from 慳貪 (kendon, greedy, in reference to “very hungry”) + (ya, house, store, restaurant). The serving bowls were called 慳貪振り (kendon-buri-bachi), literally “greedy” + “in that fashion” + “bowl”. The ken portion was elided, producing donburi-bachi, and then the -hachi was dropped to produce donburi.
  • Alternatively, and perhaps more likely, donburi in reference to “a bowl filled with large amount of food” may be cognate with どんぶり (donburi), an onomatopoeia of something heavy plunking into deep water, or something big and soft plopping down, related to onomatopoeia どぶり (doburi), どぶん (dobun), どんぶ (donbu), and どん (don), all of generally similar meanings. The food starts with a large portion of rice, also referred to as 丼飯 (donburi meshi), which could be analyzed as “plopped-down rice”.
Donburi is also used to refer to something “rough, approximate, not finely worked”, as in the phrase 丼勘定 (donburi kanjō, rough approximation, loose estimate). This is consistent with a derivation from the onomatopoeia, but not from the restaurant terms.

The kanji spelling shows (a well) with a dot in the center, possibly indicating something thrown into the well. This could suggest that the Middle Chinese reading /təmX/ may similarly derive from onomatopoeia.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana どんぶり, romaji donburi)

  1. a simple large bowl for serving food
  2. a one-bowl meal served in a donburi bowl, consisting of a large portion of rice, covered in a meat or fish
Usage notesEdit

To disambiguate, speakers may refer more specifically to donburibachi for the bowl, and donburi mono for the food.

English-language sources often refer to the food as similar to stew served over rice. Note, however, that stews consist of meat, fish, and/or vegetables cooked in a liquid and served with the sauce, whereas donburi toppings may be relatively dry, as in tempura donburi or beef donburi, or even uncooked, as in tekkadon (tuna sashimi donburi).

SynonymsEdit
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
どん
Grade: S
kun'yomi

Abbreviation of donburi above.[2][1]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana どん, romaji don)

  1. donburi: a one-bowl meal consisting of a large portion of rice, covered in a meat or fish
Usage notesEdit

Seldom used as an independent noun. More commonly encountered as a suffix.

SuffixEdit

(hiragana どん, romaji -don)

  1. donburi: a one-bowl meal consisting of a large portion of rice, covered in a meat or fish
Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(jeong) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer chŏng)

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