- During the Qin and Han Dynastys, there existed an administrative unit called a ting (亭), which was defined as an area of 10 square li. The leader of this rural district was called 亭長. The most famous former 亭長 was the Emperor Gaozu of Han.
亭長 (traditional, Pinyin tíngzhǎng, simplified 亭长)
- "亭長" (in Mandarin), Guoyu Cidian On-line Mandarin Dictionary (國語辭典). URL accessed on 2008-07-23.
- 2007, Hanyu Da Cidian 3.0 (in Mandarin), Hong Kong: Commercial Press, ISBN 9789620702778: