- KangXi: not present, would follow Template:Han KangXi link, character 21
- Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 599, character 4
- Unihan data for U+5497
- Used to emphasise an action which has been completed and whose result still applies to the present situation, similar to the particle 了 in Mandarin. It roughly translates to the past tense in English.