Last modified on 16 October 2014, at 22:26
See also: and

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
弓-order.gif

EtymologyEdit

Pictogram (象形)

弓 弓 弓 弓
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script

Han characterEdit

(radical 57 +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input 弓 (N), four-corner 17207)

  1. bow (noun)
  2. curved, arched
  3. KangXi radical number 57

See alsoEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 356, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 9692
  • Dae Jaweon: page 671, character 22
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 987, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+5F13

ChineseEdit

simpl. and trad.

PronunciationEdit


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (弓), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 見 (28)
Final: 東
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 居戎切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/kɨuŋ/ /ki̯uŋ/ /kiuŋ/ /kiuŋ/ /kuwŋ/ /kĭuŋ/ /kiuŋ/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
gōng ‹ kjuwng › /*kʷəәŋ/ bow (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
4079 0 /*kʷɯŋ/

CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. In modern Japanese, only found as a prefix in compounds.[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

PrefixEdit

(hiragana , romaji yu-)

  1. a bow, a bow shape
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
(yumi): Four different types of bow.
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
(yu, yumi, tarashi, kyū): Japanese bows, arrows, and arrow-stand.
Kanji in this term
ゆみ
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

Appears to be Old Japanese yu + suffixing element mi, itself of uncertain derivation.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana ゆみ, romaji yumi)

  1. a bow:
    1. (weaponry) a bow for shooting arrows
    2. (music) a bow for playing a stringed instrument such as a violin or cello
  2. archery
  3. (Shintō) a type of kagura (sacred Shinto song and dance) intended to drive away evil
  4. short for 破魔弓 (はまゆみ) (hama yumi): a ceremonial archery bow with the power to dispel evil
  5. a bow shape, a curve
  6. a bow-shaped tool used to beat ginned cotton into a softer and finer textile
Coordinate termsEdit
Derived termsEdit
External linksEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
たらし
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

Alteration from torashi, 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of verb torasu, from tora as the 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) of verb 取る (toru, to take) + (su, honorific suffix in Old Japanese). Original meaning was “something kept to hand”.[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana たらし, romaji tarashi)

  1. (rare, honorific) an archery bow, particularly one belonging to a noble
SynonymsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
きゅう
Grade: 2
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese (*giung).[1][2] Compare modern Mandarin (gōng).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana きゅう, romaji kyū)

  1. (rare) a bow
  2. (obsolete) in ancient Chinese archery, a unit of length for measuring the distance between the archer and the target; one kyū was equal to six (shaku), roughly six feet or 182 centimeters
  3. (obsolete) in ancient China, a unit of length for surveying land; one kyū was equal to eight (shaku), roughly eight feet or 242 centimeters
Usage notesEdit

In modern Japanese, the reading kyū is most often found in compounds.

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

KoreanEdit


the shape of the Hun bow

HanjaEdit

(gung)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: gung, McCune-Reischauer: kung, Yale: kwung)
  • Name (hangeul): ()
  1. (:궁, hwal:gung): bow (for shooting arrows)

CompoundsEdit

Related termsEdit

See alsoEdit


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(cung, cong, củng)

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