Last modified on 26 July 2014, at 21:04

TranslingualEdit

EtymologyEdit

Pictogram (象形) – two arrows, tied together to be straightened.

Later borrowed phonetically to mean “no”.

Han characterEdit

(radical 57 +2, 5 strokes, cangjie input 中中弓 (LLN), four-corner 55027, composition ⿻⿰丿)

  1. not, negative

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 356, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 9708
  • Dae Jaweon: page 673, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 990, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+5F17

ChineseEdit

simpl. and trad.

PronunciationEdit

Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (弗), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 幫 (1)
Final: 物
Division: III

Openness: Closed
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Fanqie: 分勿切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/pɨut̚/ /pi̯uət̚/ /piuət̚/ /piut̚/ /put̚/ /pĭuət̚/ /piuət̚/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ pjut › /*p[u]t/ (negation)
‹ pjut › /*put/ gust of wind
‹ pjut › /*put/ writing brush (pron. in Yān 燕, ap. Shuōwén, E. Hàn)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
3313 1 /*pɯd/

Usage notesEdit

In modern Chinese, the characters () and (fǒu) are far more commonly used to mean “no”.

ReferencesEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. fluorine
  2. the dollar sign ($)

ReadingsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
(futsu): a sample of chilled liquid fluorine.
Kanji in this term
ふつ
Hyōgaiji
on'yomi

Originally borrowed from Middle Chinese (*pjut), meaning either “not” or “a gust of wind”. Apparently later repurposed during the later Edo period for its phonetic value (and possibly also for its “wind” → “gas” connotations) in translating the German Fluor (fluorine).

The modern Mandarin (, fluorine) appears to be a more recent invention based on this Japanese usage, adding the radical .

PronunciationEdit

AffixEdit

(hiragana ふつ, katakana フツ, romaji futsu)

  1. (chemistry, chemical elements) fluorine, fluoride
Derived termsEdit
Usage notesEdit

Seldom used. In chemistry contexts, almost always spelled in katakana as フツ, appearing in most compounds as フッ. This is probably a reflection of this term's roots as a 外来語 (gairaigo, word borrowed from another language).

Etymology 2Edit

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
(doru): evolution of the dollar symbol for both the United States and (now obsolete) Spanish dollar.
Kanji in this term
どる
Hyōgaiji
kun'yomi

Repurposed for its visual similarity to the dollar symbol $. This reading is ultimately a borrowing from Dutch dollar.[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

SymbolEdit

(katakana ドル, romaji doru)

  1. a dollar
Usage notesEdit

Occasionally seen, but more often encountered in the katakana spelling of ドル.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(bul) (hangeul , revised bul, McCune-Reischauer pul, Yale pul)

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VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(phất)

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