Last modified on 16 June 2014, at 11:11
See also: and

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
東-order.gif
simpl.
trad.

EtymologyEdit

Phonetic borrowing – originally represented a bag tied at both ends (like a cellophane-wrapped candy with the ends twisted), and was later borrowed phonetically to mean "east".[1] This borrowing may have been influenced by reinterpreting the character as the sun () rising behind a tree (), which is the traditional (though incorrect) etymology.

Han characterEdit

(radical 75 +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 木田 (DW), four-corner 50906, composition)

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ [1]
  • KangXi: page 513, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14499
  • Dae Jaweon: page 899, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1165, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+6771

ChineseEdit

simpl.
trad.

PronunciationEdit


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (東), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 端 (5)
Final: 東
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 德紅切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/tuŋ/ /tuŋ/ /tuŋ/ /tuŋ/ /təwŋ/ /tuŋ/ /tuŋ/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
dōng ‹ tuwng › /*tˤoŋ (< *tˤoŋʔ ?)/ east

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
2435 0 /*toːŋ/ 種(種籽)初文,甲金文象種皮甲坼萌生根芽,參敕字陳字注

NounEdit

  1. east, eastern, eastward
  2. host
    • 做東 [Beijing Mandarin, MSC, trad.]zuòdōng [Pinyin] — to be host
  3. landlord, owner
    • 房東 [Beijing Mandarin, MSC, trad.]fángdōng [Pinyin] — landlord
    • 股東 [Beijing Mandarin, MSC, trad.]gǔdōng [Pinyin] — shareholder

Coordinate termsEdit

  • (south)
  • 西 (west)
  • (north)

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. east

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

  • 東方 (tōhō): eastern direction
  • 東南 (tōnan): southeast
  • 東亜 (tōa): East Asia
  • 東洋 (tōyō): Orient
  • 東部 (tōbu): eastern part
  • 東西南北 (tōzainanboku): east, west, south, and north
  • 関東 (kantō): Kanto
  • 東風 (kochi): a spring wind that blows from the east

Etymology 1Edit

/himukasi/: *pimukasi > ɸimukasi > himukashi. Compound of pi (sun), muka (facing, direction), and shi (wind, direction). Literally "the direction facing the sun".

NounEdit

(hiragana ひむかし, romaji himukashi)

  1. east

Etymology 2Edit

  • pingasi > ɸingasi > hingashi. From earlier /himukasi/: *pimukasi > ɸimkasi > ɸimgasi > ɸigasi > higasi.

NounEdit

(hiragana ひんがし, romaji hingashi)

  1. east
    • 10th century: Ise Monogatari (chapter 4, page 82)
      むかし、東(ひんがし)の五条に大后の宮おはしましける、西の対に住む人有けり。

Etymology 3Edit

From hingashi, from himukashi.

NounEdit

(hiragana ひがし, romaji higashi)

  1. east

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana ひがし, romaji Higashi)

  1. A surname​.

Etymology 4Edit

aduma > azuma.

NounEdit

(hiragana あずま, romaji azuma, historical hiragana あづま)

  1. east, Eastern Japan

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana あずま, romaji Azuma)

  1. A male given name
  2. A surname​.

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(dong)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: dong, McCune-Reischauer: tong, Yale: tong)
  • Name (hangeul): 동녘 (revised: dongnyeok, McCune-Reischauer: tongnyŏk, Yale: tongnyekh)
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CompoundsEdit


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(đông, đang, tông)

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