Last modified on 11 August 2014, at 13:24

浪人

ChineseEdit

simpl. and trad.

PronunciationEdit


NounEdit

浪人

  1. hobo; vagabond
  2. ruffian
  3. Japanese ronin

JapaneseEdit

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Kanji in this term
ろう
Grade: S
にん
Grade: 1
on'yomi
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Wikipedia

EtymologyEdit

From Middle Chinese compound 浪人 (lang nyin, literally wasteful or reckless person). Compare modern Chinese 浪人 (làngrén).

Originally referred to someone who had no fixed residence. Used in the context of the Ritsuryō legal system of Nara and Heian period Japan to refer to someone who had intentionally left their registered residence in order to avoid tax liabilities and corvee labor requirements.[1] Later in the Muromachi period, came to refer to samurai who had left or lost their lords. This meaning was extended in more recent times to refer to potentially anyone who was not employed, and then again to refer to high-school graduates who have failed the annual university entrance exams and are studying for the next year's exams.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

浪人 (hiragana ろうにん, romaji rōnin, historical hiragana らうにん)

  1. a masterless samurai
  2. a vagrant, a vagabond, a wanderer
  3. someone in exile
    • 16031604: Nippo Jisho (page 541)[5]
      Rǒnin. ラゥニン (牢人) 追放された人.
    More specifically spelled 牢人.
  4. a prisoner
    More specifically spelled 牢人.
  5. someone who has been laid off or fired, an unemployed person
    • 1682: 好色一代男 (page 70)[6]
      罷出たるは此あたり八百八祢宜の子共、諸方の浪人友噪ぎにして、かざえ扇は、何しのぶぞかし。
    • 1686: 好色一代女 (page 363)[6]
      「こなたは御牢人衆なるが、御奉公済ざるうちは、折ふし気慰に御入あるべし。」
    • 1686: 好色一代女 (page 437)[6]
      「京の石垣くづれなりと、さる御牢人衆の娘御なりと、新町で天神して居た女郎の果なりと、おまえへさまも見しらしやつて御ざんす事も」と
  6. a student who failed the annual university entrance exams and is waiting to take them again: 浪人生 (​rōninsei)

Derived termsEdit

SynonymsEdit

VerbEdit

浪人 + する (hiragana ろうにんする, romaji rōnin suru, historical hiragana らうにんする)

  1. to become unemployed, to lose one's job
  2. (archaic) to lose one's master
  3. to study for the following year's annual university entrance exams after failing

ConjugationEdit

SynonymsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  4. ^ 1971 [c. 1177-1188], Tachibana Tadakane; Atsuo Masamune (ed.), Iroha Jiruishō (in Japanese), Kazama Shobō:
  5. ^ 1980 August 20 [1603–1604], Tadao Doi, Hōyaku Nippo Jisho (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, ISBN 4-0008-0021-3:
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 1957 August 20 [1686], Saikaku Ihara; Isoji Asō, Gen Itasaka, Seiji Tsutsumi, Kōshin Noma, Saikaku shū, jō, Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, ISBN 4-0006-0047-8:

KoreanEdit

Hanja in this word

NounEdit

浪人 (nang-in) (hangeul 낭인)

  1. Hanja form? of 낭인, “vagabond”.