Last modified on 3 September 2014, at 15:10

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
然-bw.png
Stroke order
然-order.gif

EtymologyEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲): phonetic  + semantic  (fire)

Note that the upper left component is analyzed as 肉 (meat), and in the character 肰 (used as phonetic) is drawn as 月 (moon), but in 然 this is distorted (tilted), looking more like 夕 (evening), with an extra stroke; compare , .

Han characterEdit

(radical 86 +8, 12 strokes, cangjie input 月大火 (BKF), four-corner 23333, composition)

  1. yes, certainly
  2. pledge, promise
  3. (archaic) to agree; to endorse; to approve
  4. (archaic) but

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 675, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19149
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1086, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2213, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+7136

ChineseEdit

simpl. and trad.

PronunciationEdit

Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (然), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 日 (38)
Final: 仙
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 如延切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵiᴇn/ /ȵʑi̯ɛn/ /ȵiɛn/ /ȵiɛn/ /ȵian/ /ȵʑĭɛn/ /ȵʑjæn/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
rán ‹ nyen › /*[n]a[n]/ so, thus; (adv suffix)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
10756 2 /*njen/

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

1. suffix after nouns to express likeness 2. so, be as it is 3. however (as shikashi)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Halpern, Jack: New Japanese-English Character Dictionary -Kenkyusha 1990

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(yeon) (hangeul , revised yeon, McCune-Reischauer yŏn, Yale yen)

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VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(nhiên, nhen, nhơn)

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