Last modified on 6 December 2014, at 16:33

See also:

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
还-order.gif
Stroke order
还-bw.png

EtymologyEdit

Simplified from ()

Han characterEdit

(radical 162 +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 卜一火 (YMF))

  1. still, yet, also, besides
  2. to return
  3. a surname

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: not present, would follow page 1254, character 17
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 38771
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1737, character 19
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3818, character 14
  • Unihan data for U+8FD8

ChineseEdit

simpl.
trad.

PronunciationEdit


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (還), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: 匣 (33)
Final: 刪
Division: II

Openness: Closed
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 戸關切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ɦɣuan/ /ɣwan/ /ɣuan/ /ɦʷɯan/ /ɦwaɨn/ /ɣwan/ /ɣuɐn/
Character (還), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: 邪 (17)
Final: 仙
Division: III

Openness: Closed
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 似宣切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ziuᴇn/ /zi̯wɛn/ /ziuɛn/ /zʷiɛn/ /zwian/ /zĭwɛn/ /zjuæn/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
huán ‹ hwaen › /*[ɢ]ʷˤ<r>en/ turn around; return

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
16230 1 /*ɡʷraːn/

AdverbEdit

  1. still, yet; indicates that the phenomenon or observation still exists or the action is still ongoing
  2. even more; indicates an increase from a certain level or a supplement
  3. (before adjectives, mostly positive) passably, (surprisingly) quite
  4. (often in rhetorical questions) indicates condition and contrast; even
  5. indicates unexpectedness; really
    • 办法 [Beijing Mandarin, MSC, trad. and simp.]
      hái zhēn yǒu bànfǎ. [Pinyin]
      Surprisingly he has a way to do this.
  6. indicates past events; emphasising earliness

PronunciationEdit


VerbEdit

  1. to return to a place, to go back to a place
    • 还家 (to return home)
    • 还乡 (to return to one's hometown)
    • 还原 (to return to the original state, [chem] to reduce)
    • 还俗 (to resume secular life)
  2. to return an object, to give back
    • 偿还 (to reimburse)
    • 还书 (the return the books (to the library))
    • 手机 [Beijing Mandarin, MSC, trad. and simp.]
      Bǎ wǒ de shǒujī hái gěi wǒ. [Pinyin]
      Give my mobile back to me.
    • [Beijing Mandarin, MSC, trad. and simp.]qiàn qián bù hái [Pinyin] — to owe money (without the intention of paying back)
  3. to do or give something in return

Proper nounEdit

  1. A surname​.