Appendix:Arabic influence on Spanish

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Arabic influence on the Spanish languageEdit

Estimates of the number of Arabic loanwords in the Spanish language range from 2000 to 3000 words, a majority of which are nouns, with a more limited number of verbs, adjectives, adverbs and prepositions, thus not substantially changing the grammar or basic structure of the language. The exact number of words of Arabic origin in Spanish is not known. Many Arabism’s not included on this list are regionalisms: words which are used in certain parts of Spain and/or Latin America but are generally unknown elsewhere.

MethodologyEdit

This is an open list of Spanish words acquired directly from Classical and Template:wtyl, listed in alphabetical order. This list includes the Spanish meaning of the word as well as the Arabic etymology. No fixed standard of Arabic transliteration is used. Due to the heavy influence of Arabic on Spanish, this list is relatively restrictive:

  • Only words which have passed directly from Arabic are included. Arabic words which entered the Spanish language through other, non-Iberian, European languages (such as beduino, sofá or sorbete) are not included.
  • Only Spanish root words are listed, derivations not being included. For example, aceite (from az-zeit, oil) is included but not aceitería, aceitero, aceitón or aceitoso. On the other hand, aceituna (olive) is included since it derives not from الزيت az-zeit but from الزيتونة az-zeituna in Arabic, even though the root of the Arabic word is the same. An exception to this rule may be made when the derived word is much more commonly used than the root word or when it is not evident that one is derived from the other (e.g., horro and ahorrar).
  • Words derived from Mozarabic are not included (Mozarabic being fundamentally a Romance language), unless the Mozarabic word is itself derived from classical Arabic.

The etymology and meaning of most of these words can be verified on the site of the Real Academia de la Lengua Española, although a small minority are only available in past editions of this dictionary.

AEdit

  1. ababol: silly or thoughtless person. Used mainly in the Spanish region of Aragon. Poppy. In Aragon, Navarre, Albacete and Murcia. From Andalusian Arabic Happapáwr, a fusion of the Arabic word ħabb (حب) "seed" and the Latin papāver.
  2. abacero: owner of an abacería, small food shop. From Andalusi Arabic ʂaħb azzād (صاحب الزاد) "owner of the supplies."
  3. abadí: descendant/lineage of Mohammed ben Abad, founder of the Taifa Kingdom of Seville in the 11th century AD. From Andalusi Arabic abbadi (عبّادي).
  4. abalorio: cheap jewelry; jewelry beads. From Andalusi Arabic al balluri (البلوري) "made of glass."
  5. abarraz: stavesacre (Delphinium staphisagria), a medicinal plant. From Andalusi Arabic ħabb ar-ra’s (حب الرأس) "head seeds."
  6. abasí: pertaining to the Abbasid dynasty, which overthrew the Umayyads in the 8th century.
  7. abelmosco: musk seeds, an aromatic plant. From Andalusi Arabic ħabb al-musk (حب المسك) literally "musk seeds."
  8. abencerraje: used in expression: "Zegríes y abencerrajes", which means "partisans of opposite interests". The Abencerrajes (in Arabic aban as-sarráǧ) was an Arabic family of the Kingdom of Granada, rivals of the Zegríes in the 15th century.
  9. abenuz: ebony. From Arabic abanus (أبنوس) of the same meaning.
  10. abismal: screw in head of a spear. From Arabic al-mismar (المسمار) "nail."
  11. abitaque: a cut of wood used in construction of a certain shape and dimension. From Arabic Tabaqa (طبقة) "layer" or "intermediate chamber."
  12. acebibe: raisin. From Arabic zabib (زبيب) of the same meaning.
  13. acebuche: wild olive tree, or wood from such a tree. From Andalusi Arabic azzabbúǧ.
  14. aceche: copper, iron or zinc sulfate. From Arabic zāǧ.
  15. aceifa: Muslim summer military expedition. From Arabic Sa'ifah "harvest" or "summer expedition."
  16. aceite: oil. From Arabic az-zayt (الزيت) "oil."
  17. aceituna: olive. From Arabic الزيتون (az-zaytun) "olive."
  18. aceituní: precious cloth from the Orient. From Arabic az-zaytuni, a possible adaptation of the Chinese city Tsö-Thung.
  19. acelga: chard. From Arabic as-silqa of the same meaning.
  20. acémila: beast of burden; tax formerly paid in Spain. From Arabic az-zamilah "beast of burden."
  21. acemite: wheat husk; a type of wheat porridge. From Arabic as-samid (السميد).
  22. acenefa: see cenefa.
  23. aceña: water mill. From Arabic as-saniyah "the lifter."
  24. acequia: irrigation canal. From Arabic as-saqiyah "the irrigator."
  25. acerola: fruit of the service tree (the tree itself is called acerolo). From Arabic zu 'rūrah. Originally from Syriac za‘rārā.
  26. acetre: bucket or Cauldron used to extract water from a well; small cauldron used to spray holy water in Christian liturgy. From Arabic as-saTl (السطل).
  27. aciar: (or acial): instrument used to keep farm-animals still by squeezing their ear or snout. From Arabic az-ziyār.
  28. acíbar: aloe (both the plant and its bitter juice); bitterness, grief, distaste. From Arabic aS-Sabr.
  29. acicalar: to clean or polish (acicalarse in reflexive form); to make oneself look good by combing, shaving etc. From Arabic aS-Siqal, an instrument used for polishing things.
  30. acicate: spurs or the spikes on spurs; incentive. From Arabic (Muzil) as-siqaT "what takes away weaknesses."
  31. acidaque: Muslim dowry. From Arabic as-Sidaq, dowry in Islamic law.
  32. acimut: astrological concept: angle with which the meridian forms a vertical circle which passes through a point in the globe. From Arabic assumut plural of samt.
  33. ación: handle on the stirrup. From Arabic suyūr, plural of sayr "strap."
  34. acirate: line of soil used to separate different plots of land; path between two lines of trees. From Arabic SirāT.
  35. acitara or citara: thin wall, normally on a bridge. From Arabic sitārah, wall to avoid falls.
  36. achacar: to blame. From Arabic tashakkà (تشكى): to complain or to blame.
  37. adafina: pot used by Hebrews to cook. It is buried in embers on Friday night, where it cooks until Saturday. From Arabic: dafina "buried."
  38. adalid: leader; general of Spanish militia. From Arabic dalil (دليل).
  39. adaraja: each of the gaps made by the bricks in a horizontally unfinished wall. From daraja.
  40. adarga: leather shield. From Arabic daraqah.
  41. adárgama:(rarely used today) flour. From Arabic darmaka.
  42. adarme: small portion of something; type of measurement. From Arabic dirham (درهم).
  43. adarvar: to shock. From Arabic darb (ضرب) "blow."
  44. adarve: wall of a fortress; protection, defense. From Arabic darb (ضرب)
  45. adaza: sorghum. From Arabic duqsah.
  46. adefera: a small, square wall or floor tile. From Arabic add-ddafeera.
  47. adehala: that which is granted or taken as obligatory with the price in the leasing or sale of a property. From Mozarabic ad ihala and originally from Arabic ihala "offering credit."
  48. adelfa: oleander. From Arabic ad-difla (الدفلى) of the same meaning.
  49. ademán: gesticulation which expresses the will to do something. From Arabic aD-Daman (الضمان), literally meaning legal guarantees. The change of meaning is due to the exaggerated promises and gesticulations which were offered in such a plea.
  50. ademe: wooden structures used to strengthen tunnels in mines. From Arabic di'mah.
  51. aderra: cord used to press grapes or olives in order to obtain their juice. From Andalusi Arabic ad-dirra a noose or cord used to punish those who were guilty of fraud.
  52. adiafa: present or refreshment given to sailors when back from a voyage. From Arabic Diyafa (ضيافة) "present of hospitality."
  53. adivas: a disease provoking throat inflammation in animals. From Arabic aD-Dibbah "wolverine" - which is the old Arabic name for this disease.
  54. adive: a type of canid similar to a fox. From Arabic di'b (ذئب).
  55. adobe: brick made from clay. From Arabic at-tuba (الطوبة from Coptic tôbe) of the same meaning, and from ad-dabba.
  56. adoquín: paving-stone, cobble; block. From Arabic Dukkan bench of rock or wood.
  57. ador: in regions where water for irrigation is restricted and shared out by local authorities, irrigation-time for each farm/field. From Arabic dawr.
  58. aduana: customs house; customs. From Arabic diwan (ديوان).
  59. aduar: semi-permanent rural settlement, normally used for Gypsies, Bedouins or Amerindians in South America. From Bedouin Arabic duwwar.
  60. adúcar: type of silk made from the outside of the silk-worm's cocoon. From Andalusi Arabic Haduqa.
  61. adufe:tambourine used by Spanish Muslims. From Arabic Duff (دف).
  62. adul: in Morocco, assessor of the Cadí. From Arabic adl "trustworthy person."
  63. adula: see dula.
  64. adunia: (adverb) lots. From Andalusi Arabic addunya, originally from Classical Arabic duniya (الدنيا) "the (whole) world."
  65. adutaque: same meaning as adárgama. From Arabic duqaq (دقاق) "fine flour."
  66. afán: effort; desire; zeal. From afanar.
  67. afanar: to steal; to work with passion. From Arabic fanaaʔ (فناء) "extinction," "annihilation through passion."
  68. aguajaque: the whitish resin of fennel. From Arabic aw-washaq "contaminated with water."
  69. agüela: Renta de los derechos sobre préstamos consignados en documento público. From Arabic Hawalah.
  70. ajabeba: Moorish flute. From Classical Arabic sabbabah.
  71. ajaquefa: ??Ceiling??. Arabic as-saqaf السقف
  72. ajaraca:
  73. ajarafe: terrace. From Classical Arabic saraf "commanding height."
  74. ajebe: Alum; Para rubber Tree. From Arabic as-Shabb.
  75. ajedrea: plant of the family of the Labiadas, about three decimeters of height, very populated with branches and narrow leaves, of dark color. It is cultivated for adornment in the gardens. From Arabic assariyya or assiriyya, ultimately from Latin satureia.
  76. ajedrez: chess. From Arabic ash shitrang (الشطرنج).
  77. ajenuz: nutmeg flower or Roman coriander (Nigella Sativa). From Andalusi Arabic Shanuz and ultimately Classical Arabic Shuniz.
  78. ajimez: bent; window divided in the center by a vertical divider; salient balcony done of wood and with lattice windows. From Arabic samis.
  79. ajomate: pluricellular alga formed by very thin filaments, without knots, bright and of intense green color. It abounds in fresh waters of Spain. From Classical Arabic gumam.
  80. ajonjolí: sesame; herbaceous, annual plant of the family of the Pedaliaceae, a meter high, straight stem, serrate and almost triangular leaves, white or rosy corolla, and fruit with four delicate, yellowish, oily and edible capsules and many seeds. From Classical Arabic gulgulan "sesame."
  81. ajorca: bangle; type of gold hoop, silver or another metal, used by the women to adorn the wrists, arms or the feet. From Classical Arabic shuruk, ultimately from the word shirāk "strap."
  82. ajorrar: To drag, to tow. See Jorro.
  83. ajuagas: equine animal ulcers. From Classical Arabic shuqaq.
  84. ajuar: a collection of household and personal items (clothes, furniture, jewelry etc...) which women in Spain traditionally prepare from a young age for the day in which they marry and move in with their husband. From Arabic Shawar.
  85. alacena: cupboard. From Classical Arabic ẖizānah (خزانة).
  86. alacet: foundation of a building. From Classical Arabic asas (أساس).
  87. alacrán: scorpion. From Classical Arabic aqrab (عقرب) of same meaning.
  88. aladar
  89. aladroque:
  90. alafa: wage; pay. From Classical Arabic alafah "subsistence allowance."
  91. 'alafia: grace; pardon; mercy. From Andalusian Arabic al afya ultimately from Classical Arabic afiyah (عافية) "health."
  92. alahílca: tapestry to adorn the walls. Perhaps of alailaca from Andalusian Arabic ilaqa, and this of Classical Arabic ilāqah (علاقة) perhaps meaning "hanger."
  93. alajor
  94. alajú
  95. alamar
  96. alambique: alembic. From Arabic al-anbiq "the cup/container holding water", in turn from Greek.
  97. alambor (two meanings from al'ubur and from al-hambad)
  98. alamín
  99. alamud
  100. alaqueca
  101. alárabe
  102. alarde/alardear: To boast/to show off.
  103. alarido: Scream.
  104. alarife
  105. alarije
  106. alaroz
  107. alaroza
  108. alatar
  109. alatrón
  110. alazán
  111. alazor
  112. albacara: Wall around a fortress (within which cattle were normally kept. From Arabic bab al-baqqara The cattle door. baqara (بقرة) means "cow" in Arabic.
  113. albacea: executor (of a will). From Andalusi Arabic Sahb al Wassiya (صاحب الوصية); "the owner of the will".
  114. albacora: albacore. From Arabic al-bakura "premature" or al-bakrah "young camel."
  115. albadena
  116. albahaca
  117. albahío
  118. albaida
  119. albanar
  120. albanega
  121. albaní
  122. albañal
  123. albañil
  124. albaquía: the remainder. From Arabic al-baqi (الباقي) of the same meaning.
  125. albarán
  126. albarrán
  127. albarazo
  128. albarda
  129. albardán
  130. albardín
  131. albaricoque: apricot. From Arabic al-barqouq (البرقوق) "plum" or "early-ripe."
  132. albarrada
  133. albarrán
  134. albarrana
  135. albatoza
  136. albayalde
  137. albéitar
  138. albenda
  139. albengala
  140. alberca
  141. albérchigo
  142. albihar
  143. albitana
  144. alboaire
  145. albogue: Single-reed clarinet used in Spain. From Arabic al-bûq (البوق): The horn or the trumpet.
  146. alboheza
  147. albohol
  148. albollón
  149. albóndiga: meatball; ball. From Arabic al-bunduqa (البندقة) "the ball."
  150. albórbola
  151. alborga
  152. albornía
  153. albornoz: Bath-robe. From al-burnos (البرنس); "bathrobe".
  154. alboronía
  155. alboroque
  156. alborozo
  157. albotín
  158. albricias
  159. albudeca
  160. albufera: Lagoon. From al-buhayra (البحيرة); little sea, lake.
  161. albur
  162. alcabala
  163. alcabor
  164. alcabtea
  165. alcacel
  166. alcachofa: Artichoke. From al-ẖarshoof of the same meaning.
  167. alcaduz
  168. alcafar
  169. alcahaz
  170. alcahuete
  171. alcaicería
  172. alcaide:
  173. alcalde: Mayor.
  174. álcali: alkali. From Arabic qalawi (قلوي) of the same meaning.
  175. alcaller
  176. alcamiz
  177. alcamonías
  178. alcana
  179. alcaná
  180. alcancía: Clay money box, penny or piggy bank. From Andalusi Arabic alkanzíyya, derived from Classical Arabic kanz: treasure.
  181. alcándara
  182. alcandía
  183. alcandora
  184. alcanería
  185. alcanfor
  186. alcántara/alcantarilla: drain; sewer. From Arabic al-qantarah.
  187. alcaparra
  188. alcaraván
  189. alcaravea
  190. alcarceña
  191. alcarraza
  192. alcarria
  193. alcatanes
  194. alcatara (or alquitara)
  195. alcatifa
  196. alcatraz
  197. alcaucil, artichoke. From Spanish Arabic: alqabsíl[a], that comes from Mozarab diminutive kapićéḻa, and this from Spanish Latin: capĭtia, head. (Standard Latin, Caput-itis)
  198. alcavela
  199. alcazaba
  200. alcázar: citadel; palace. From Arabic al-qasr (القصر) "the citadel."
  201. alcazuz (or orozuz)
  202. alcoba: alcove. From Arabic al-qubba "the vault" or "the arch."
  203. alcohela
  204. alcohol: from Arabic al-kuhul (الكحول) fine powder of antimony sulfide used as eye makeup.
  205. alcoholar
  206. alcolla
  207. alcor
  208. alcora
  209. alcorcí
  210. alcorque
  211. alcorza
  212. alcotán
  213. alcotana
  214. alcrebite
  215. alcuacil
  216. alcubilla
  217. alcuña
  218. alcuza
  219. alcuzcuz
  220. alchub
  221. aldaba
  222. aldea/aldeano: Village/Villager.
  223. aldiza
  224. alefriz
  225. aleja
  226. alejija
  227. alema
  228. alerce
  229. aletría
  230. aleve/alevoso/alevosía
  231. aleya
  232. alfaba
  233. alfábega
  234. alfadía
  235. alfaguara
  236. alfahar/alfaharería
  237. alfaida
  238. alfajeme
  239. alfajor: Sweet almond shortbread. From Spanish Arabic fašúr, and this from Persian afšor (juice).
  240. alfalfa: alfalfa. From Arabic al-fafaa literally "the best kind of fodder"
  241. alfaneque (two meanings, a type of bird, from Arabic al-fanak and a tent from Berber afarag)
  242. alfanje
  243. alfaque
  244. alfaqueque
  245. alfaquí
  246. alfaquín
  247. alfaraz
  248. alfarda (two meanings from al-farda and from al-fardda)
  249. alfardón
  250. alfareme
  251. alfarje
  252. alfarrazar
  253. alfaya
  254. alfayate
  255. alfazaque
  256. alféizar
  257. alfeñique
  258. alferecía
  259. alferez
  260. alferraz
  261. alferza
  262. alficoz
  263. alfil: bishop, in chess. From Arabic al-feel (الفيل) "the elephant."
  264. alfilel/alfiler
  265. alfinge
  266. alfitete
  267. alfiz
  268. alfolí
  269. alfombra (two meanings from al-jumra and al-humra)
  270. alfóndega
  271. alforfón
  272. alforja
  273. alforre
  274. alforrocho
  275. alforza
  276. alfóstigo
  277. alfoz
  278. algaba
  279. algaida
  280. algalia
  281. algar
  282. algara
  283. algarabía: incomprehensible talk; gabble; gibberish. From Arabic al-garabiya.
  284. algarivo
  285. algarrada
  286. algarrobo: carob. From Arabic al-kharouba "the carob."
  287. algavaro
  288. algazafán
  289. algazara
  290. algazul
  291. álgebra: algebra. From the name of al-Khwarizmi' book Hisab al-jabr w'al-muqabala "The Calculus of Subtraction and Equality."
  292. algecireño
  293. algodón, "cotton", from Arabic "al-qutn", meaning "the cotton"
  294. algorfa
  295. algoritmo, algorithm, that comes from the name of Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, محمد بن موسى الخوارزمي, famous mathematician.
  296. algorza
  297. alguacil
  298. alguaquida
  299. alguaza
  300. alhadida
  301. alhaite
  302. alhaja: jewel. From Arabic al-hagah "the valuable thing."
  303. alhamar
  304. alhamel
  305. alhamí
  306. alhandal
  307. alhanía
  308. alhaquín
  309. alharaca
  310. alhavara
  311. alhelí
  312. alheña
  313. alholva
  314. alhorí
  315. alhorre (two meanings from al-khur and al-hurr)
  316. alhorría (or ahorría)
  317. alhucema
  318. alhuceña
  319. alhurreca
  320. aliacán
  321. aliara
  322. alicante
  323. alicatar
  324. alicate
  325. alidada
  326. alifa
  327. alifafe (two meanings from an-nafakh and al-lifah)
  328. alifara
  329. alijar
  330. alimara
  331. alioj
  332. alizace
  333. alizar
  334. aljaba
  335. aljabibe
  336. aljama
  337. aljamía/aljamiado: Medieval Romance Spanish or Mozarabic written in Arabic script.
  338. aljaraz
  339. aljarfa
  340. aljébana
  341. aljerife
  342. aljez
  343. aljibe
  344. aljófar/aljofarar
  345. aljofifa
  346. aljor (or aljez)
  347. aljuba
  348. aljuma
  349. añagaza
  350. almacabra
  351. almacén: deposit. From Arabic al-majzan of makhzan (المخزن) "the storage" or "the depot."
  352. almacería
  353. almáciga
  354. almadén
  355. almádena
  356. almadía
  357. almadraba: Tuna fishing. Word used primarily in Andalusia and particularly in Cadiz province.
  358. almadraque
  359. almagazén
  360. almagra
  361. almahala
  362. almaizar
  363. almaja
  364. almajaneque
  365. almajar
  366. almajara
  367. almalafa
  368. almanaque: almanac. From Arabic al-manakh (المناخ) "the climate." Or possibly from Greek almenichiakon "calendar."
  369. almacebe
  370. almarada
  371. almarbate
  372. almarcha
  373. almarjo
  374. almarrá
  375. almarraja or almarraza
  376. almártaga (two meanings, from al-marta'a and al martak)
  377. almástica
  378. almatroque
  379. almazara
  380. almazarrón
  381. almea (two meanings, from almay'a and 'alima)
  382. almejía
  383. almenara (two meanings, from al-manara and al-minhara)
  384. almez
  385. almíbar
  386. almicantarat
  387. almijar
  388. almijara
  389. almijarra
  390. almimbar
  391. alminar
  392. almiraj/almiraje/almiral
  393. almirez
  394. almizate
  395. almizcle/almizque
  396. almocadén
  397. almocafre
  398. almocárabe
  399. almoceda
  400. almocrebe
  401. almocrí
  402. almodón
  403. almófar
  404. almofariz
  405. almofía
  406. almofrej/almofrez
  407. almogama
  408. almogávar
  409. almohada: Pillow.
  410. almohade
  411. almoharrefa
  412. almohaza
  413. almojábana
  414. almojama (see mojama)
  415. almojarife
  416. almojaya
  417. almona
  418. almoneda
  419. almoraduj/almoradux
  420. almorávide:
  421. almorí
  422. almotacén
  423. almotalafe
  424. almotazaf/almotazán
  425. almozala/almozalla
  426. almud
  427. almuédano
  428. almunia
  429. alpechín
  430. alquería: farmhouse. From Arabic al-qaria "the village."
  431. aloque
  432. aloquín
  433. alpargata
  434. alquequenje
  435. alquería
  436. alquermes
  437. alquerque (Two meanings from al-qirq and al-qariq)
  438. alquez
  439. alquezar
  440. alquibla
  441. alquicel
  442. alquiler: Rent.
  443. alquimia
  444. alquinal
  445. alquitira
  446. alquitrán
  447. alrota
  448. altabaca
  449. altamía
  450. altramuz
  451. alubia: pea bean
  452. aludel
  453. aluquete/luquete
  454. alloza
  455. amán
  456. ámbar
  457. ámel
  458. amín
  459. amirí
  460. anacalo
  461. anacora
  462. anafaga
  463. anafalla/anafaya
  464. anafe
  465. anaquel
  466. andorra
  467. andrajo
  468. anea
  469. anejir
  470. anfión
  471. anorza
  472. anúteba
  473. añacal
  474. añacea/añacear
  475. añafea
  476. añafil
  477. añagaza
  478. añascar
  479. añazme
  480. añicos
  481. añil (ultimately from Sanskrit nilah "dark blue")
  482. arabí
  483. arancel
  484. arbellón/arbollón
  485. archí
  486. argadillo
  487. argamandel
  488. argamula
  489. argán
  490. argel
  491. argolla
  492. arguello/arguellarse
  493. arije
  494. arimez
  495. arjorán
  496. arnadí
  497. arrabá
  498. arrabal
  499. arracada
  500. arráez
  501. arrayán
  502. arrecife
  503. arrejaque/arrejacar
  504. arrelde
  505. arrequife
  506. arrequive
  507. arriate
  508. arricés
  509. arroba
  510. arrobda
  511. arrocabe
  512. arrope
  513. arroz: Rice.
  514. áscar/áscari
  515. asequi
  516. asesino: assassin. From Arabic hashshashin "someone who is addicted to hashish (marijuana)." Was originally use to refer to the followers of the Persian Hassan-i-Sabah] (حسن صباح), the Hashshashin.
  517. atabaca
  518. atabal
  519. atabe
  520. atacar
  521. atacir
  522. atafarra/ataharre
  523. atafea
  524. atahona
  525. atahorma
  526. ataifor
  527. ataire
  528. atalaya
  529. atalvina
  530. atambor
  531. atanor
  532. atanquía
  533. ataracea
  534. atarazana
  535. atarfe
  536. atarjea
  537. atarraga
  538. atarraya
  539. ataúd: Coffin.
  540. ataujía
  541. ataurique
  542. atifle
  543. atijara
  544. atíncar
  545. atoba
  546. atocha
  547. atracae
  548. atoque
  549. atríaca/atriaca
  550. atún: Tuna.
  551. atutía
  552. auge: Surge/rise.
  553. aulaga
  554. avería
  555. ayatolá
  556. azabache
  557. azabara
  558. azacán
  559. azacaya
  560. azache
  561. azafate/azafata
  562. azafrán: saffron. From Arabic za'firan of the same meaning. Perhaps from safra "yellow."
  563. azahar: White flower, especially from the orange tree. From Spanish Arabic azzahár, and this from Classic Arabic zahr, flowers
  564. azalá
  565. azamboa
  566. azándar
  567. azaque
  568. azaquefa
  569. azar: hazard; luck; chance; random. From Arabic al-zahr "the dice."
  570. azarbe
  571. azarcón
  572. azarja
  573. azarnefe
  574. azarote
  575. azófar
  576. azofra/azofrar
  577. azogue (two meanings: from az-za'uq and from as-suq)
  578. azolvar
  579. azor
  580. azorafa
  581. azote: Smacking, beating, scourge. From Arabic Sawt.
  582. azotea: Flat roof or terrace. From Andalusi Arabic assutáyha, diminutive of sath, terrace in Classical Arabic.
  583. azoya
  584. azúcar: sugar. From Arabic (سكر) sukkar of the same meaning.
  585. azucarí
  586. azucena
  587. azuche
  588. azud
  589. azufaifa/azufaifo
  590. azul: Blue. Derived from Arabic Lazaward.
  591. azulaque (or zulaque)
  592. azulejo
  593. azúmbar
  594. azumbre: Measurement for liquids equivalent to around two liters. From Del Andalusi Arabic aTTúmn, and this from Classical Arabic: Tum[u]n, "an eighth".

BEdit

  1. babismo: Babism. From Arabic باب "door."
  2. babucha — slipper
  3. badal
  4. badán
  5. badana
  6. badea
  7. badén — dip in land or sidewalk or ford
  8. badial
  9. bagarino
  10. bagre: a freshwater fish that has no scales, a catfish. From Arabic baghir or baghar.
  11. baharí
  12. baída
  13. baja: pasha, Turkish officer or governor of high rank. From Arabic basha ultimately from Turkish pasha of the same meaning.
  14. baladí
  15. balaj/balaje
  16. balate
  17. balda (and baldío)
  18. baldar
  19. balde: from Arabic batil "false" or "useless."
  20. bancal
  21. baño
  22. baraka
  23. barbacana
  24. barcino
  25. bardaje
  26. barragán
  27. barrio — area or district
  28. bata (either from Arabic batt of French ouate)
  29. batán
  30. batea
  31. baurac
  32. bayal
  33. baza (either Arabic or Italian origin)
  34. bazar — bazaar
  35. belez
  36. bellota: acorn, the fruit or seed of the oak tree. From Arabic balluta of the same meaning.
  37. ben
  38. benimerín
  39. benjuí
  40. berberí
  41. berberís
  42. bereber
  43. berenjena/berenjenal
  44. bezaar/bezoar
  45. bocací
  46. bodoque/bodocal
  47. bófeta
  48. bórax
  49. borní
  50. boronía
  51. botor
  52. bujía
  53. bulbul
  54. burche
  55. buz
  56. buzaque

CEdit

  1. cabila: tribe of Berbers or Bedouins. From Arabic قبيلة (qabīla), "tribe."
  2. cachera
  3. cadí
  4. cadira
  5. café: coffee. From قهوة (qáhwa) of the same meaning.
  6. cáfila
  7. cafiz (or cahiz)
  8. cafre
  9. caftán
  10. cáid (same origin as alcaide)
  11. caimacán
  12. cala
  13. calafate/calafatear
  14. calahorra
  15. calí (same root as álcali)
  16. cálibo/calibre
  17. cambuj
  18. camocán
  19. canana — cartridge belt
  20. cáncana/cancanilla
  21. cáncano
  22. cande (in azúcar cande)
  23. canfor
  24. caraba
  25. cárabe
  26. cárabo: owl; dog. Taken from قراب (qaraab) and كلب (kalb) "dog," respectively.
  27. caracoa
  28. caramida
  29. caramuzal
  30. caravana
  31. caravasar
  32. carcajada/carcajear
  33. carcax
  34. carmen/carme: From Spanish Arabic kárm, and this from Classical Arabic كرم (karm), vine.
  35. carmesí
  36. carmín
  37. carraca
  38. carrafa
  39. cártama/cártamo
  40. catán
  41. catifa
  42. cazurro
  43. cebiche
  44. cebtí
  45. ceca
  46. cedoaria
  47. cegatero
  48. cegrí
  49. ceje
  50. celemí/celemín/celeminero
  51. cenacho
  52. cendolilla
  53. cenefa
  54. ceneque
  55. cení
  56. cenia
  57. cenit
  58. cequí
  59. cerbatana
  60. cero: zero. From صفر (sifr) of the same meaning.
  61. cetís
  62. ceutí
  63. chafariz
  64. chafarote
  65. chaleco
  66. charrán
  67. chifla
  68. chiísmo
  69. chilaba (from Moroccan Arabic)
  70. chiquero
  71. chirivía
  72. chisme
  73. chivo
  74. choz
  75. chupa
  76. chuzo
  77. cianí
  78. cibica
  79. cica
  80. cicalar
  81. cicatear
  82. cicatero (cicatero has a different root to cicatear)
  83. ciclán
  84. ciclar
  85. ciclatón
  86. cid
  87. cifaque
  88. cifra/cifrar
  89. címbara
  90. cimboga
  91. cimitarra
  92. circón
  93. citara
  94. civeta/civeto
  95. coba/cobista
  96. cofa
  97. coima
  98. coime
  99. colcótar
  100. cora
  101. Corán
  102. corbacho
  103. corma
  104. cotonía
  105. cubeba
  106. cúrcuma
  107. curdo
  108. cuscuta
  109. cuscús (or alcuzcuz/cuzcuz)

DEdit

  1. dado: die. From Classical Arabic اعداد a'dad "numbers."
  2. daga — daggar
  3. dahír
  4. daifa
  5. dante
  6. darga (or adarga) — shield
  7. dársena — dock/basin
  8. daza
  9. derviche
  10. descafilar
  11. destartalado
  12. dey
  13. dínar
  14. dirham
  15. diván — divan/couch
  16. droga — drug
  17. druso
  18. dula/dular

EEdit

  1. edrisí
  2. ejarbe
  3. elche
  4. elemí
  5. embelecar/embeleco
  6. emir (or amir)
  7. encaramar
  8. enchufar/enchufe: To plug in/plug; To connect, to offer a job or a post through personal connections. From Andalusi Arabic Juf derived from Classical Arabic Jawf: stomach; internal cavity.
  9. engarzar — to set/thread
  10. enjalma
  11. enjarje
  12. enjeco
  13. escabeche: Pickle or marinade. From Arabic as-sukbaj. Originally from Persian Sekba.
  14. escafilar (see descafilar)
  15. escaque/escaquear
  16. espinaca — spinach
  17. exarico

FEdit

  1. faca
  2. falagar
  3. falca
  4. falleba
  5. faltriquera — pocket
  6. falúa/faluca
  7. fanega/hanega
  8. fanfarrón
  9. faranga (or haragán)
  10. farda
  11. fardacho
  12. farfán
  13. farnaca
  14. farota
  15. farruco
  16. felús
  17. fetua
  18. fez
  19. fideo
  20. filelí
  21. foceifiza
  22. fondolí
  23. fondac/fonda
  24. foz
  25. fulano: To refer to "anyone" without naming, X of people. Arabic: Fulan.
  26. fustal
  27. fustete

GEdit

  1. gabán
  2. gabela
  3. gacel/gacela
  4. gafetí
  5. galacho
  6. galanga
  7. galbana
  8. gálibo
  9. galima
  10. gandula/gandula
  11. garama
  12. garbino
  13. gardacho
  14. gárgol
  15. garrafa
  16. garrama
  17. garroba
  18. gilí
  19. gomer
  20. granadí
  21. grisgrís
  22. guadamací
  23. guájara
  24. guájete
  25. guala
  26. guarismo
  27. guifa
  28. guilla
  29. gumía
  30. gurapas

H, IEdit

  1. habiz
  2. habús
  3. hachís
  4. hacino
  5. hadruba
  6. hafiz
  7. hálara
  8. hálara
  9. hamudí
  10. haragán
  11. harambel
  12. harbar
  13. harén
  14. harma
  15. harón
  16. Hasaní
  17. hasta: Until. From Arabic حتى hatta (same meaning).
  18. hataca
  19. hazaña
  20. he: Adverb used in a number of ways: (1) "he aquí/ahí/allí": Here it is/there it is. (2) Used in conjunction with pronouns me/te/le/la/lo/las/los to point something out. e.g., Te lo he dicho, meaning I have told you (it). From Arabic haa.
  21. hégira
  22. hobacho/hobacha
  23. holgazán
  24. holgar
  25. hoque
  26. horro/horra
  27. imam
  28. imela
  29. islam

J, KEdit

  1. jabalí : Wild Boar. From Arabic jebeli, of the mountains. Perhaps originally from Khanzeer Jebelí: Mountain Pig.
  2. jabalón
  3. jabeca
  4. jabeque
  5. jabí : A type of apple and type of grape. From Andalusi Arabic sha‘bí, a type of apple.
  6. jácara
  7. jácena
  8. jacerino
  9. jadraque
  10. jaez
  11. jaguarzo
  12. jaharí
  13. jaharral
  14. jaharrar
  15. jaima
  16. jaique
  17. jalear
  18. jalma (or enjalma)
  19. jaloque
  20. jametería
  21. jámila
  22. japuta
  23. jaque
  24. jaqueca: Migraine. From Arabic Shaqiqa, with same meaning.
  25. jáquima
  26. jara
  27. jarabe
  28. jaraíz
  29. jarcha
  30. jareta
  31. jaricar
  32. jarifo/jarifa
  33. jarquía
  34. jarra: Pitcher or other pot with handle(s). From ǧarrah, same as English jar.
  35. jatib
  36. jazarino/jazarina
  37. jazmín
  38. jebe
  39. jeliz
  40. jemesía
  41. jeque
  42. jerife: sheriff. From shereef of the same meaning.
  43. jeta
  44. jifa
  45. jinete
  46. jirafa: giraffe. From ziraffa (زرافة) of the same meaning.
  47. jirel
  48. jofaina: a wide, shallow basin for domestic use. From ǧufaynah.
  49. jofor
  50. jorfe
  51. joroba
  52. jorro
  53. juba/aljuba/jubón
  54. jurdía
  55. kermes

LEdit

  1. laca: resinous substance tapped from the lacquer tree. From Arabic lak, taken from Persian lak, ultimately from Sanskrit laksha literally meaning "one hundred thousand" referring to the large number of insects that gather and sap out all the resin from the trees.
  2. lacre
  3. lapislázuli: lapis lazuli, a deep blue mineral. From Arabic lazaward from Persian lagvard or lazward, ultimately from Sanskrit rajavarta literally meaning "ringlet of the king."
  4. latón: brass. From Arabic latun from Turkish altin "gold."
  5. laúd: lute. From Arabic al 'ud (اعواد) "the lute."
  6. lebeche: Southeasterly wind on the Mediterranean coast of Spain. From Andalusi Arabic Labash.
  7. lebení: a Moorish beverage prepared from soured milk. From Arabic labani "dairy."
  8. leila: from Arabic layla "night."
  9. lelilí: Shouts and noise made by Moors when going into combat or when celebrating parties. From لا إله إلا الله lā ilāhā illā-llāhu: there is no god but God; Ya leilí: O-Night; ya 'ayouni: O my eyes.
  10. lima: lime. From Arabic limah of the same meaning.
  11. limón: lemon. From laymoon (ليمون), derived from the Chinese word limung.
  12. loco: crazy. From Arabic lawqa "fool."

MEdit

  1. macabro
  2. macsura
  3. madraza
  4. magacén
  5. magarza/magarzuela
  6. maglaca
  7. maharon/maharona
  8. maharrana/marrana/marrano
  9. mahozmedín
  10. maimón
  11. majareta
  12. majzén
  13. mamarracho
  14. mameluco
  15. mamola
  16. mandeísmo
  17. mandil
  18. maquila
  19. marabú
  20. maravedí
  21. marcasita
  22. marchamo
  23. márfega
  24. marfil
  25. marfuz/a
  26. margomar
  27. marjal
  28. marlota
  29. marojo
  30. maroma
  31. marras
  32. márraga
  33. marroquí: (adj) Moroccan. From Morrocan Arabic Marrakush: Marrakesh.
  34. masamuda: (adj) Individual from the Berber Masmuda tribe, from which originate the Almohades, a movement which ruled Spain and North Africa in the XII century. From Arabic: Masamuda.
  35. matafalúa
  36. mártaga
  37. máscara
  38. matarife
  39. matraca
  40. matula
  41. mauraca
  42. mazapán
  43. mazarí
  44. mazarrón
  45. mazmodina
  46. mazmorra
  47. mazorca: corn cob; roll of wool or cotton. From Andalusi Arabic: Masurqa, derived from Classical Arabic Masura: a tube used as a bobbin (sewing).
  48. meca: Place which is attractive because of a particular activity. From Arabic Mekkah.
  49. mechinal
  50. mejala
  51. mejunje
  52. mengano/mengana
  53. mequetrefe
  54. mercal
  55. metical
  56. mezquino
  57. mía: A military term, formerly designating a regular native unit composed of 100 men in the Spanish protectorate of northern Morocco; by analogy, any colonial army. From Arabic Mi'ah: one hundred.
  58. mihrab:
  59. miramamolín
  60. moaxaja
  61. mogataz
  62. mogate
  63. moharra
  64. moharracho
  65. mohatra
  66. mohedal
  67. mohino
  68. mojí
  69. momia
  70. mona
  71. monfí
  72. morabito
  73. moraga
  74. morapio
  75. mozárabe
  76. mudéjar
  77. muftí
  78. mujalata
  79. mulquía
  80. muslim/muslime: (Adjective) Muslim. From Arabic Muslim.

N, O, P, QEdit

  1. nabí
  2. nacar
  3. nácara
  4. nadir: the point on the celestial sphere, opposite the zenith directly below the observer. From nadheer.
  5. nádir
  6. nagüela
  7. naife
  8. naipe
  9. naranja: orange (fruit), from نارنج
  10. narguile
  11. natrón
  12. nazarí
  13. nenúfar
  14. nesga
  15. noria
  16. nuca
  17. ojalá: I hope; I wish. From law šaʾ allāh (وشاء الله), "God willing."
  18. ¡olé!: The most famous expression of approval, support or encouragement, comes from wa-Allah والله , by Allah!
  19. omeya: adj. Related to the Ummayyad.
  20. oque
  21. orozuz
  22. ox
  23. quermes
  24. quilate/quirate
  25. quilma
  26. quina
  27. quintal

REdit

  1. rabadán
  2. rabal
  3. rabazuz
  4. rabel
  5. rábida
  6. rafal
  7. rafe
  8. ragua
  9. rahez
  10. ramadán
  11. rambla
  12. rauda
  13. rauta
  14. real: Military encampment; plot where a fair is organized; (in Murcia region) small plot or garden. From Arabic rahl: camping.
  15. rebato
  16. rebite
  17. recamar
  18. recua
  19. redoma
  20. rehala
  21. rehalí
  22. rehén
  23. rejalgar: realgar. From reheg al-ghar (رهج الغار): "powder of the cave"
  24. requive
  25. resma
  26. retama
  27. rincón: from ركن
  28. robda
  29. robo (or arroba)
  30. romí/rumí
  31. ronzal
  32. roque

SEdit

Word Arabic root Description
Saharaui
sajelar
salema
sandía
sarraceno
sebestén
secácul
serafín
siroco
sofí
sófora
soldán
soltaní
sufí
sura

TEdit

  1. tabal (or atabal)
  2. tabaque
  3. tabefe
  4. tabica
  5. tabique
  6. taca
  7. tafurea
  8. tagarino/tagarina
  9. tagarnina
  10. taha
  11. tahalí
  12. tahona
  13. Taifa
  14. tajea
  15. talco
  16. talega
  17. talvina
  18. támara
  19. tamarindo
  20. tambor
  21. tara
  22. taracea
  23. taraje
  24. tarasí
  25. tarbea
  26. tarea
  27. tareco
  28. tarida
  29. tarifa
  30. tarima
  31. tarquín
  32. tarraya
  33. taza: cup. From tasa.
  34. tértil
  35. tíbar
  36. tochibí
  37. tomín
  38. toronja
  39. toronjil
  40. trafalmejas
  41. truchimán/na
  42. trujamán/na
  43. tuera
  44. tumbaga
  45. Tunecí
  46. turbit
  47. turquí (in [[azul turquí)])
  48. tutía (or atutía)

V,X,YEdit

  1. vacarí: from Arabic بقري baqari "bovine."
  2. velmez: from Arabic ملابس malbas "clothing."
  3. visir: vizier. From Arabic وزير wazir "minister."

ZEdit

  1. zabalmedina: in the Middle Ages, judge with civil and criminal jurisdiction in a city. From Arabic Sahib al Medina "Chief of the City."
  2. zabarcera: woman who sells fruit and other food. Same origin as abacero
  3. zabazala: imam who leads Islamic prayer. From Arabic SaHb aS-Salah "Leader of prayer."
  4. zabazoque: same meaning as almotacén. From Arabic SáHb as-súq "Leader of the Market."
  5. zábila: aloe vera (used mainly in Latin America) From Andalusi Arabic sabíra, originally from Classical Arabic Sibar.
  6. zabra: type of vessel used in the Bay of Biscay in the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Modern Age. From Arabic zauraq.
  7. zacatín: in some villages, a square where clothes are sold. From saqqatin, plural of saqqat: seller of clothes.
  8. zafar: a number of meanings in Spain and Latin American countries: To free, to untie, to ignore, to unknit among others. From Arabic azaHa: to take away.
  9. zafarí: Granada zafarí: a type of pomegranate. Higo zafarí: a type of fig. From Arabic Safr.
  10. zafariche:
  11. zafio
  12. zafrán
  13. zaga
  14. zagal: boy. From Andalusian Arabic zaḡál, traditional Arabic zuḡlūl. Same meaning.
  15. zagaya (or azagaya)
  16. zagua
  17. zaguán: hall. From Andalusian Arabic istawán, traditional Arabic usṭuwān(ah).
  18. zagüía
  19. zaharrón
  20. zahén
  21. zahón
  22. zahora
  23. zahorí
  24. zaida
  25. zaino
  26. zala
  27. zalamelé
  28. zalea/zalear
  29. zalema/zalama
  30. zalmedina: Same meaning and origin as zabalmedina.
  31. zalona
  32. zamacuco
  33. zambra
  34. zanahoria: carrot, presumably from Andalusi Arabic. The only Arabic dialect with a cognate form is Tunisian with sfinaria.
  35. zaque
  36. zaquizamí
  37. zaragüelles
  38. zaranda/zarandillo
  39. zaratán
  40. zarco
  41. zarracatín
  42. zarzahán
  43. zatara
  44. zéjel
  45. zoco (or azogue): market. From Arabic souk of the same meaning.
  46. zofra
  47. zorzal: field fare.
  48. zubia
  49. zulaque
  50. zulla
  51. zumaque: sumac. From Arabic simaq of the same meaning.
  52. zumo: fruit juice
  53. zuna

Toponyms (place names) in Iberia of Arabic originEdit

There are hundreds if not thousands of place names derived from Arabic in the Iberian peninsula including provinces and regions, cities, towns, villages and even neighborhoods and streets. They also include geographical features such as mountains, mountain ranges, valleys and rivers. Toponyms derived from Arabic are common in all of Spain (including much of the North of the country) except for those regions which never came under Muslim rule or where it was particularly short-lived. These regions include Galicia and the Northern coast (Asturias, Cantabrian and the Basque country) as well as most of Catalonia. Regions where place names of Arabic origin are particularly common are the Eastern Coast and the region of Andalusia. In Portugal, the frequency of Arabic toponyms increases as one travels south in the country.

Those toponyms which maintained their pre-Islamic name during the Muslim period were generally Arabized and the mark of the old Arabic pronunciation is noticeable in their modern names: e.g. Cesarea Augusta — سرقسطة Saraqusţah — Zaragoza.

Toponyms (place names) in Iberia of Arabic originEdit

There are hundreds if not thousands of place names derived from Arabic in the Iberian peninsula including provinces and regions, cities, towns, villages and even neighborhoods and streets. They also include geographical features such as mountains, mountain ranges, valleys and rivers. Toponyms derived from Arabic are common in all of Spain (including much of the North of the country) except for those regions which never came under Muslim rule or where it was particularly short-lived. These regions include Galicia and the Northern coast (Asturias, Cantabrian and the Basque country) as well as most of Catalonia. Regions where place names of Arabic origin are particularly common are the Eastern Coast and the region of Andalusia. In Portugal, the frequency of Arabic toponyms increases as one travels south in the country.

Those toponyms which maintained their pre-Islamic name during the Muslim period were generally Arabized and the mark of the old Arabic pronunciation is noticeable in their modern names: e.g. Cesarea Augusta — سرقسطة Saraqusţah — Zaragoza.

Major towns, cities and regionsEdit

  • Axarquía Eastern region of Malaga province, From Arabic Ash-sharquía: The eastern/oriental (region).
  • Andalucía Most populated and 2nd largest autonomous community in Spain. Derived from الأندلس, Al Andalus, the Arabic name for Muslim Iberia.
  • Albacete city and province of Castilla la Mancha. Derived from Arabic Al Basit (the plain).
  • Algarve Region of southern Portugal. From Arabic al gharb, the west.
  • Algeciras City and port in Cadiz province. Derived from Al Jazeera Al Khadra meaning the green island.
  • Almería City and province of Andalucía. From Al Meraya, the watchtower.
  • Alpujarras (originally Alpuxarras) Region extending South of Granada into Almería. From Arabic Al-Busherat: The grasslands.
  • Badajoz City and province of Extremadura. Badajoz was called Pax Augusta by the Romans and most likely the current name is derived from an Arabic corruption of the original Latin name.
  • Calatayud City of Aragón. Derived from Qal'at Ayyūb (Arabic قلعة أيوب) meaning "Castle of Ayyub".
  • Guadalajara City and province of Castilla la Mancha. From Wādī al-Jārah (Arabic {{term|وادي]] [[حجارة|الحجارة|lang=ar}}), Wadi or canyon of Stones.
  • Gibraltar British Colony in Southern Spain. From Jabal Ţāriq (جبل طارق), Mountain of Tariq, (Tariq ibn Ziyad).
  • Jaén City and province of Andalucía From Arabic Jayyan, crossroads of caravans.
  • Lisboa (Lisbon). Capital of Portugal. Derived from original Arabic name: al-'Ishbūnah in Arabic الأشبونة
  • Madrid Capital of Spain. Derived from original Arabic name: al-MagrīT, المجريط: "Source of water".
  • La Mancha Wide arid steppes covering much of Toledo, Ciudad Real, Cuenca and Albacete provinces. Derived from original Arabic name: la'a Ma-anxa : "No water".
  • Medina Sidonia: Town and municipality in Cadiz province.
  • Tarifa town in southern Spain. Originally Jazeera Tarif: the island of Tarif. Derived form the first name of the Berber conqueror Tarif ibn Malik.
  • La Sagra, an arid region between Toledo and Madrid. Name derived from Arabic Sahra صحراء "desert".
  • Sevilla, city and province in Andalusia. From Arabic Ishbillia, deformation of Latin Hispalis.

Geographical featuresEdit

  • Guadiana river. Meaning "Anna river".
  • Guadalquivir river. Derived from Arabic: al-wādĩ al-kabir الوادي الكبير, "the big river".
  • Mulhacén. Highest mountain in peninsular Spain. Named after 15th century Arabian Sultan of Granada Ali Muley Hacén Abu al-Hasan.
  • Pico Almanzor. Mountain in the Sierra de Gredos of Central Spain. Named after "Almanzor" Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir, de-facto ruler of Al Andalus in late 10th – early 11th centuries.

Geographical featuresEdit

  • Guadiana river. Meaning "Anna river".
  • Guadalquivir river. Derived from Arabic: al-wādĩ al-kabir الوادي الكبير, "the big river".
  • Mulhacén. Highest mountain in peninsular Spain. Named after 15th century Arabian Sultan of Granada Ali Muley Hacén Abu al-Hasan.
  • Pico Almanzor. Mountain in the Sierra de Gredos of Central Spain. Named after "Almanzor" Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir, de-facto ruler of Al Andalus in late 10th – early 11th centuries.

Suggestions for further researchEdit

In the English language, search the online catalogs of United States university libraries using the Library of Congress (LC) subject heading, "Spanish language foreign elements".

When searching Spanish language Web sites, use the subject term, "arabismos".

Selected reference works and other academic literatureEdit

These works have not necessarily been consulted in the preparation of this article.

  • Cabo Pan, José Luis. El legado del árabe. Mosaico 8:7–10. Revista para la Promoción y Apoyo a la Enseñanza del Español. Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia del Reino de España, Consejería de Educación y Ciencia en Bélgica, Países Bajos y Luxemburgo. [Article with convenient, short word lists, grouped by theme. In PDF. Refer to Mosaico's portal page. ]
  • Corriente, Federico. 2003. Diccionario de arabismos y voces afines en iberorromance. (2nd expanded ed.; 1st ed. 1999) Madrid: Gredos. 607 p.
  • Maíllo Salgado, Felipe. 1991/1998. Los arabismos del castellano en la Baja Edad Media : consideraciones históricas y filológicas. Salamanca: Universidad de Salamanca. 554 p. [2nd ed., corrected and enlarged; 1st ed. 1983]
  • Ibid. 1996. Vocabulario de historia árabe e islámica. Madrid: Akal. 330 p.
  • Pezzi, Elena. 1995. Arabismos: estudios etimológicos. Almería: Universidad de Almería. 160 p.
  • Sola-Solé, Josep María. 1983. Sobre árabes, judíos y marranos y su impacto en la lengua y literatura españolas. Barcelona: Puvill. 279 p.
  • Toro Lillo, Elena. La invasión árabe. Los árabes y el elemento árabe en español. In the Cervantes Virtual Library. Includes a brief list of historical sound changes. Useful bibliography.

Selected resource pages of universities and research institutesEdit

  • Instituto de Estudios Islámicos y del Oriente Próximo. Search results consisting of Institute publications whose entries contain the word "arabismos" [1]
  • Universidad de Granada. Holdings under the subject "arabismos" [2]
Last modified on 11 July 2013, at 22:16