Appendix:Greek pronunciation

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VowelsEdit

  IPA IPA used elsewhere Articulation Examples Notes
α a ä low central αγορά [aɣoˈɾa], άνω ano]  
ο
ω
o or ɔ mid back ομάδα [oˈmaða]
πάνω [ˈpano], ωμέγα [oˈmeɣa]
 
ου u high back πουλί [puˈli], φούστα [ˈfusta]  
ε
αι
e or ɛ mid front πεθερά [peθeˈɾa], μέλι [ˈmeli]
αιτία [eˈtia], παιδί [peˈði]
 
ι
η
υ
ει
οι
υι
i high front βιβλίο [viˈvlio], παιδί [peˈði]
μητέρα [miˈteɾa], νίκη [ˈnici]
γλυκό [ɣliˈko]
κλειδί [kliˈði]

κοινός [ciˈnos]
υιός [iˈos]

  1. When not followed by a vowel(e.g. μικρός [miˈkros]
  2. When stressed (e.g. δουλεία [ðuˈli.a])
  3. In words of learned origin (e.g. ποιόν [piˈon])
  4. When preceded by consonant + [ɾ] (e.g. μητριά [mi.tɾiˈa])
ι
η
υ
οι
ει
ʝ j καράβια [kaˈɾavʝa], παιδιά [peˈðʝa], μαγειρειό [maʝiˈɾʝo] only with unstressed [i] after β, δ, ζ, ρ and before a vowel
ç φωτιά [foˈtça], ελάφια [eˈlafça], καλάθια [kaˈlaθça], ίσιος [ˈisços], πιο [pço], ποιος [pços] only with unstressed [i] after θ, π, σ, τ, φ and before a vowel
ɲ μια [mɲa], μυαλό [mɲaˈlo] only with unstressed [i] after μ and before a vowel
αυ af αυτός [afˈtos], ταυ [taf] before unvoiced consonants (π τ κ θ χ σ ξ ψ)[1] and word-final
αυ av αυγή [avˈʝi], μαύρος [ˈmavɾos] before vowels and voiced consonants (δ γ ζ λ ρ μ ν)[1]
ευ ef ευχαριστώ [efxaɾiˈsto] before unvoiced consonants (π τ κ θ χ σ ξ ψ)[1] and word-final
ευ ev ευαγγέλιο [evaŋˈɟelio] before vowels and voiced consonants (δ γ ζ λ ρ μ ν)[1]
ευ e Εύβοια evia], ευφημισμός [efimiˈzmos] before β, φ
ηυ if επηυξημένος [epifksiˈmenos] before unvoiced consonants (π τ κ θ χ σ ξ ψ) and word-final
ηυ iv απηύδησα [aˈpivðisa] before vowels and voiced consonants (δ γ ζ λ ρ μ ν)

ConsonantsEdit

  IPA IPA used elsewhere Articulation Examples Notes
β v Voiced labiodental fricative βουλή [vuˈli], σοβαρός [sovaˈɾos], συμβουλή [siɱvuˈli], βόδι voði], βόρεια voɾia]  
γ ɣ Voiced velar fricative γάμος ɣamos], αγάπη [aˈɣapi], αγόρι [aˈɣoɾi], γάτα ɣata] before [a] [o] [u]
ʝ j Voiced palatal fricative για [ʝa], γένος ʝenos], Γεώργιος [ʝeˈoɾʝios], γυαλί [ʝaˈli] before ι, η, υ, οι, ει and [e]
δ ð Voiced dental fricative (interdental) δώρο ðoɾo], παιδί [peˈði], δάχτυλο ðaxtilo], ενδιαφέρον [enðiaˈfeɾon]  
ζ z Voiced alveolar fricative ζωή [zoˈi], ζήλια ziʎa], χαζός [xaˈzos], ζάχαρη zaxaɾi]  
θ θ Voiceless dental fricative (interdental) θάλασσα θalasa], άνθος [ˈanθos], θέμα θema]  
κ k Voiceless velar plosive κόρη koɾi], σύκα [ˈsika] before [a] [o] [u]
c Voiceless palatal plosive κήπος cipos], πακέτο [paˈceto] before ι, η, υ, ει, οι and [e]
λ l Dental lateral approximant λάθος laθos], καλό [kaˈlo], λεμόνι [lemoni], πάλι [ˈpali] ʎ before [i] in some dialects, idiolects
ʎ Palatal lateral approximant κιάλια [ˈcaʎa] [li]+vowel with [i] unstressed
μ m Bilabial nasal μόνος monos], χώμα [ˈxoma]  
ɱ Labiodental nasal συμφωνία [siɱfoˈnia], έμφαση [ˈeɱfasi] before β, φ (labial/labiodental fricatives)
ν n Dental nasal νονός [noˈnos], ένας [ˈenas], άνω [ˈano], νύχτα nixta], άνοιξη [ˈaniksi] ɲ before [i] in some dialects and idiolects
ɲ Palatal nasal νοιάζομαι ɲazome], πανιά [paˈɲa] [ni]+vowel with [i] unstressed
ŋ Velar nasal πανκ [ˈpaŋk], Χέμινγουεϊ [ˈçemiŋɣuˈei] before velar and palatal consonants
ξ ks Voiceless velar plosive and Voiceless alveolar fricative ξένος ksenos]  
π p Voiceless bilabial plosive πόδι poði], κάπου [ˈkapu], παπάς [paˈpas], πέντε pende]  
ρ ɾ r Alveolar flap ροδιά [ɾoˈðʝa], ψάρι [ˈpsaɾi], πάρα [ˈpaɾa], ρετσίνα [ɾeˈʦina]  
σ/ς s Voiceless alveolar fricative σώμα soma], δάσος [ˈðasos], βάση [ˈvasi], σαλάτα [saˈlata]  
σ z Voiced alveolar fricative Λέσβος [ˈlezvos], Πελασγός [pelaˈzɣos], Έσδρας [ˈezðɾas], κόσμος [ˈkozmos] before [v] [ɣ] [ʝ] [ð] [z] [m]
τ t Voiceless dental plosive

Voiceless alveolar plosive

τέλος telos], ποτό [poˈto], μητέρα [miˈteɾa]  
φ f Voiceless labiodental fricative φόρος foɾos], νέφος [ˈnefos], φούστα fusta]  
χ x Voiceless velar fricative χαρά [xaˈɾa], βήχας [ˈvixas], άγχος [ˈaŋxos], χάνω xano], χρόνος xɾonos] before [a], [o], [u]
ç Voiceless palatal fricative χιόνι çoni], βροχή [vɾoˈçi], χέρι çeɾi] before ι, η, υ, ει, οι, [e]
ψ ps Voiceless bilabial plosive and Voiceless alveolar fricative ψωμί [psoˈmi]  

Grouped consonantsEdit

  IPA IPA used elsewhere Articulation Examples Notes
τσ
τς
ʦ Voiceless alveolar affricate τσέπη ʦepi], παπούτσι [paˈpuʦi]  
τζ ʣ Voiced alveolar affricate τζαμί [ʣaˈmi], παντζάρι [panˈʣaɾi]  
μπ b Voiced bilabial plosive μπότα bota], μπύρα biɾa] initial position
mb Prenasalized Voiced bilabial plosive καμπάνα [kamˈbana] medial position, variation dependent on sociolinguistic/dialectal factors; alternative pronunciations: mb, b
b Voiced bilabial plosive μπουμπούκι [buˈbuci] medial position, variation dependent on sociolinguistic/dialectal factors
mp Prenasalized Voiceless bilabial plosive κομπιούτερ [komˈpçuteɾ] with borrowed words
μπτ mt or mpt Πέμπτη [ˈpemti] or [ˈpempti]  
ντ d Voiced dental plosive ντουλάπα [duˈlapa], ντάμα dama], ντομάτα [doˈmata] initial position
nd Prenasalized Voiced dental plosive πέντε [ˈpende], έντομο [ˈendomo] medial position, variation dependent on sociolinguistic/dialectal factors; alternative pronunciation: nd, d
d Voiced dental plosive ντουντούκα [duˈduka] medial position, variation dependent on sociolinguistic/dialectal factors
nt Prenasalized Voiceless dental plosive αντένα [anˈtena] with borrowed words
ντσ
ντς
Prenasalized Voiceless alveolar affricate  αβάντσα  [aˈvantsa]  
ντζ Prenasalized Voiced alveolar affricate  σκαντζόχοιρος  [skaˈndzoçiɾos]  
γκ ɡ Voiced velar plosive γκρίνια ɡɾiɲa], γκάζι ɡazi] initial position, before [a], [o], [u]
ɟ Voiced palatal plosive γκιόνης ɟonis] initial position, before ι, η, υ, οι, ει, [e]
ŋɡ Prenasalized Voiced velar plosive αγκώνας [aŋˈɡonas] medial position
ŋɟ Prenasalized Voiced palatal plosive ανάγκη [aˈnaŋɟi] medial position
γκτ ŋkt ελεγκτής [eleˈŋktis]  
γγ ŋɡ Prenasalized Voiced velar plosive αγγλικός [aŋɡlikos] alternate pronunciation: ŋɡ, ɡ
ŋɟ Prenasalized Voiced palatal plosive άγγελος [ˈaŋɟelos] before ι, η, υ, ει, οι, [e]; alternate pronunciation: ŋɟ, ɟ
ŋɣ Prenasalized Voiced velar fricative έγγραφο [ˈeŋɣɾafo]  
ŋʝ ŋj Prenasalized Voiced palatal fricative εγγεγραμμένος [eŋʝeɣɾaˈmenos] before [i] and [e]
γχ ŋx Prenasalized Voiceless velar fricative άγχος [ˈaŋxos]  
ŋç Prenasalized Voiceless palatal fricative αγχίνοια [aŋˈçinia] before [i] and [e]
γξ ŋks Σφιγξ [sfiŋks]  

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Holton, D., Mackridge, P. and Philippaki-Warburton, I. (1997). Greek: A comprehensive grammar of the modern language. London: Routledge.

Suggested sourcesEdit

The main sources of the values above were:

Last modified on 2 February 2014, at 08:42