The original form was a neuter root noun, as can be seen from Latin os and Avestan [script?] (ast-). In the rest of the daughters, the noun has been transferred to various vocalic stems.
Medial -th- in Sanskrit अस्थि (ásthi) requires root of the form *HestH (the initial laryngeal is there to account for the canonical shape of Proto-Indo-European root). Latin reflex requires initial laryngeal to be *h₃, and Ancient Greek ὀστέον (osteon) points to *h₁ as the root-final laryngeal.
Celtic forms require initial laryngeal to be #h₂-, so this noun is sometimes reconstructed to have paradigm *h₂óst(h₁) ~ *h₂ést(h₁)s.
*h₃ésth₁, *h₂óst(h₁), *h₂ést(h₁) n
Acrostatic ablauting paradigm.
This entry needs an inflection-table template.
- Albanian: asht, ahstë
- Hittite: ḫastāi-
- Luwian: ḫāš
- Armenian: (< *Host-wer-)
- Latin: os (click for further descendants)
- Indo-Iranian: *HastH- (< *h₃estH-)
- Tocharian B: āy (plural āsta)
- ^ Steinbauer and Schrijver
- Robert S. P. Beekes (2009) Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Brill Academic Publishers), volume 2, page 1119
- Michiel de Vaan, Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages, Brill, 2008, page 436
- J. P. Mallory, D. Q. Adams (ed.), Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, London: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1997, page 77