This entry contains Proto-Indo-European reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.




  1. bright
  2. to shine
  3. to see


with e-grade:

with o-grade:

  • from *lówk-os:
    • Latin: lūcus
    • Lithuanian: laũkas “field, open space”
    • Latvian: lauks "field"
    • Proto-Germanic: *lauhaz
    • Sanskrit: [script?] (lōkaḥ) “free space”
  • Old Church Slavonic: лоуча (luča) 'ray' from *lowk-yā
  • from *lowk-s-neh₂:

with zero-grade:

  • Ancient Greek λύχνος (lúkhnos) from *luk-s-nos


  • Anatolian:
    • Hittite: [script?] (luk(k)-)
  • Armenian:
  • Indo-Iranian:
    • Indo-Aryan:
    • Iranian:
      • Avestan: [script?] (raočant-)[script?] ("shining"), 𐬭𐬀𐬊𐬗𐬀𐬵 (raočah) ("light; day")
      • Baluchi: روچ (rōč) ("sun; day")
      • Kurdish:
        • Kurmanji: roj ("sun; day"), ron ("bright")
        • Sorani: ڕۆژ (řoj) ("day")
      • Middle Persian: 𐭩𐭥𐭬 (rōč, rōz) ("day")
  • Italic:
    • Latin: lūx (see there for further descendants), luceō (possibly from *lowk-eyo-)
  • Celtic:
    • Gaulish: leux
    • Old Irish: luchair ("shine")
    • Welsh: llug ("shimmer")
  • Slavic: *lučь
  • Tocharian:
Last modified on 3 January 2014, at 08:26