Last modified on 23 May 2014, at 14:26


This entry contains Proto-Kartvelian reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Probably borrowed from Proto-Armenian[1][2][3][4] *ɣʷeinyo- (whence Old Armenian գինի (gini)), from Proto-Indo-European *we/oi(H)nyo-. As noted by Martirosyan, the sound change Proto-Indo-European *w > Proto-Armenian *ɣʷ > Proto-Kartvelian *ɣw is impeccable[1] and is also observed in Proto-Indo-European *wi(H)- > Proto-Armenian *ɣʷi- (> Old Armenian գի (gi, juniper)) > Proto-Kartvelian *ɣwi- > Georgian ღვია (ḡvia, juniper).

Klimov 1998, who agrees with the ultimate Proto-Indo-European origin of the word, denies derivation from Old Armenian գինի (gini), citing Diakonoff: "It cannot go back to Armenian gini because the change * > g probably must have been accomplished there long before the first Kartvelian-Armenian contacts in the 7th–6th centuries B.C.".

According to Fähnrich, not borrowed from Indo-European but a native South Caucasian word derived from the verbal root *ɣun- (to bend).

The ending of Svan ღვინ-ელ (ḡvin-el), ღვინ-ა̈ლ (ḡvin-äl) represents a petrified diminutive affix.



  1. wine



  1. 1.0 1.1 “gini” in Hrach Martirosyan (2010), Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon, Leiden, Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, ISBN 9789004173378, page 214
  2. ^ գինի in Hračʿeay Ačaṙean (1971–79), Hayerēn armatakan baṙaran [Dictionary of Armenian Root Words], in 4 vols (second edition), Yerevan: Yerevan State University, volume I, page 559
  3. ^ Robert S. P. Beekes (2010) Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Leiden, Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, page 1059
  4. ^ *ɣwino- in Kartvelian Etymology database compiled by Sergei Starostin "Несомненный индоевропеизм (повидимому, from протоарм. *ɣwino-m, арм. gin); см, напр, Климов 1981, 171, Климов 1994, 78-82 (хотя автор настойчиво пытается избежать выведения из протоармянского, оно все же представляется наиболее вероятным)."
  • “*ɣwino-” in Georgij A. Klimov (1998), Etymological Dictionary of the Kartvelian Languages, New York, Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter, page 227
  • “*ɣwino-” in Georgij A. Klimov (1964), Etimologičeskij slovarʹ kartvelʹskix jazykov [Etymological Dictionary of the Kartvelian Languages], Moscow: USSR Academy of Sciences, page 203–204
  • “*ɣwin-” in Heinz Fähnrich (2007), Kartwelisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch [Kartvelian Etymological Dictionary], Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 486