Last modified on 23 May 2014, at 14:26


This Proto-Kartvelian entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Probably borrowed from Proto-Armenian[1][2][3][4] *ɣʷeinyo- (whence Old Armenian գինի (gini)), from Proto-Indo-European *we/oi(H)nyo-. As noted by Martirosyan, the sound change Proto-Indo-European *w > Proto-Armenian *ɣʷ > Proto-Kartvelian *ɣw is impeccable[1] and is also observed in Proto-Indo-European *wi(H)- > Proto-Armenian *ɣʷi- (> Old Armenian գի (gi, juniper)) > Proto-Kartvelian *ɣwi- > Georgian ღვია (ḡvia, juniper).

Klimov 1998, who agrees with the ultimate Proto-Indo-European origin of the word, denies derivation from Old Armenian գինի (gini), citing Diakonoff: "It cannot go back to Armenian gini because the change * > g probably must have been accomplished there long before the first Kartvelian-Armenian contacts in the 7th–6th centuries B.C.".

According to Fähnrich, not borrowed from Indo-European but a native South Caucasian word derived from the verbal root *ɣun- (to bend).

The ending of Svan ღვინ-ელ (ḡvin-el), ღვინ-ა̈ლ (ḡvin-äl) represents a petrified diminutive affix.



  1. wine



  1. 1.0 1.1 “gini” in Hrach Martirosyan (2010), Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon, Leiden, Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, ISBN 9789004173378, page 214
  2. ^ գինի in Hračʿeay Ačaṙean (1971–79), Hayerēn armatakan baṙaran [Dictionary of Armenian Root Words], in 4 vols (second edition), Yerevan: Yerevan State University, volume I, page 559
  3. ^ Robert S. P. Beekes (2010) Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Leiden, Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, page 1059
  4. ^ *ɣwino- in Kartvelian Etymology database compiled by Sergei Starostin "Несомненный индоевропеизм (повидимому, from протоарм. *ɣwino-m, арм. gin); см, напр, Климов 1981, 171, Климов 1994, 78-82 (хотя автор настойчиво пытается избежать выведения из протоармянского, оно все же представляется наиболее вероятным)."
  • “*ɣwino-” in Georgij A. Klimov (1998), Etymological Dictionary of the Kartvelian Languages, New York, Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter, page 227
  • “*ɣwino-” in Georgij A. Klimov (1964), Etimologičeskij slovarʹ kartvelʹskix jazykov [Etymological Dictionary of the Kartvelian Languages], Moscow: USSR Academy of Sciences, page 203–204
  • “*ɣwin-” in Heinz Fähnrich (2007), Kartwelisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch [Kartvelian Etymological Dictionary], Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 486