Last modified on 28 May 2014, at 21:40

Appendix:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/g/s-ni-s

Asterisk.svg
This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Sino-TibetanEdit

EtymologyEdit

  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: ?
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *g/s-ni-s (Matisoff, STEDT); *g-nis (Benedict, 1972; Chou, 1972; LaPolla, 1987); *g-ni-s (Weidert, 1987)

Alongside the root for "three" (*g-sum), this root for "two" is one of the most lexemically and phonologically stable numerals in Sino-Tibetan languages, and lexical replacement of this etymon is excessively rare: e.g. Jingpho /ləkhôŋ/ which has not been successfully connected to anything else (Note that the Jingpho word for "one" has a similar shape: /ləŋâi/ and is also etymologically unclear).

This root appears unmistakably cognate with *s-ni-s (seven). See there for more.

The Burmese form seems to suggest a proto-language velar final variant: *-ik.

NumeralEdit

  1. two

DescendantsEdit

  • Old Chinese: /*nij-s/
    • Middle Chinese: /ȵiɪH/

         Japanese:   (, ni)
            Korean:   (i) (, i)
            Vietnamese:  nhị

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: (èr, /ˀɤɻ⁵¹/)
      • Cantonese
        • Guangzhou: /jiː²²/
      • Wu
        • Shanghai: /ȵi²³/ (colloquial) /ɦəɻ²³/ (literary)
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      • Burmish
      • Loloish
        • Northern Loloish
          • Yi (Liangshan): (nyip, two)
  • Karenic:
    /*k-hnejᴬ/ (Luangthongkum, 2013)
    • Sgaw: ခံ (khi, two)

See alsoEdit