Last modified on 31 May 2014, at 00:53


This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



From Proto-Balto-Slavic . Cognate with Latgalian a and Lithuanian õ (and; but).

Circumflex on Lithuanian õ indicates a Proto-Indo-European long vowel (i.e. a lengthened grade) as the origin, as opposed to the short *e or *o with followed by a laryngeal.

According to the usual doctrine[1], the initial form was *h₁ōd, ablative singular of the PIE demonstrative pronoun *éy, h₁e. However, that demonstrative has no such ablative singular attested in any of the daughter languages, so that hypothesis remains unprovable.

The same PIE proto-form could have also yielded Sanskrit आत् (ā́t, so, then, afterwards) and Avestan 𐬁𐬀𐬝 (āat̰) ("afterwards, then").



  1. but
  2. and


  • East Slavic:
    • Belarusian: а (a)
    • Russian: а (a)
    • Ukrainian: а (a)
  • South Slavic:
    • Old Church Slavonic:
      Cyrillic: а (a)
      Glagolitic: (a)
    • Bulgarian: а (a)
    • Macedonian: а (a)
    • Serbo-Croatian:
      Cyrillic: а
      Roman: a
    • Slovene: a
  • West Slavic:
    • Czech: a
    • Polish: a
    • Slovak: a
    • Sorbian:
      • Lower Sorbian: a


  1. ^ E.g. Derksen 2008:25