Last modified on 16 September 2014, at 11:28

Appendix:Swadesh lists for Celtic languages

IEdit

English Proto-Celtic Breton Cornish Welsh Old Irish Irish Scottish Gaelic Manx
1 I *mī me my mi, fi mi mee
2 you *tū te ty ti thu oo
3 he *em eñv ev ef, fe, fo é e eh
4 we *(s)nīs ni ni ni sní sinn, muid sinn shin
5 you
(plural)
*swīs c'hwi hwi chwi, chi síi, sib sibh sibh shiu
6 they *yoi int i hwy, hwynt, nhw é siad iad, 'ad ad
7 this *sindos, *so-sin, *se- an ... mañ an ... ma hwn, y ... yma in ... so an ... seo, an ... so an ... seo yn ... shoh
8 that *emo-, *sindo-de an ... se an ... na hwnnw, y ... yna in ... sin, in ... tall an ... sin, an ... siúd an ... sin, an ... siud yn ... shen, yn ... shid
9 here *sondo, *uman? amañ omma yma sund anseo an-seo ayns shoh, aynshoh
10 there *kei, *anda? aze ena yna tall ansin, ansiúd an sin, an siud ayns shen, ayns shid
11 who *kʷei piv piw pwy cía quoi
12 what *kʷid petra pyth beth cid cad é, céard ciod, cre, c'red
13 where *kʷuts pelec'h ple ble cía airm, cairm, cía dú , cá háit, cén áit càite c'raad
14 when *kʷan(o) pegoulz, pedavare, pevare p'eur pryd cuin cathain, cá huair, cén uair cuin cre'n traa, cuin
15 how penaos, pegiz, pevod fatell sut co, cía chruth, cía indas, cindas conas, cén chaoi, cad é mar ciamar, cionnas kys, kanys, cre'n aght
16 not *ne ne ... ket ny dim , nícon , cha cha cha
17 all *ollos holl, tout oll holl, i gyd uile uile uile ooilley
18 many *ɸilu- kalz lies llawer il, imdae, mór a lán, mórán mòran ram, mooarane
19 some *nekʷos bennak, meur a nebes rhai, rhyw nach roinnt roinn shiartanse, kuse
20 few *nekʷos nebeud nebes ychydig úathad, terc, bec beagán beagan beggan
21 other *alyos all, arall erell arall aile eile eile elley
22 one *oinos unan onan un óen aon aon unnane, nane, un
23 two *dwau daou dew dau daa

IIEdit

English Proto-Celtic Breton Cornish Welsh Old Irish Irish Scottish Gaelic Manx
24 three *trīs tri tri tri trí trí trì tree
25 four *kʷetwares pevar peswar pedwar cethair ceathair ceithir kiare
26 five *kʷinkʷe pemp pymp pump cóic cúig còig queig
27 big *māros bras, (old) meur bras mawr mór, oll mór mòr mooar
28 long *sīro- hir hir hir fota, sír fada fada foddey, liauyr
29 wide *ɸlitanos ledan ledan llydan lethan leathan leathann lhean
30 thick *tegus fetis, tev tew tew tiug, remor tiubh tiugh çhiu
31 heavy *trummo- pounner poes trwm trom trom trom trome
32 small *bekko- bihan byghan bach, bychan bec beag beag beg
33 short *birro- berr berr byr gerr, cummair, berr gearr goirid giare
34 narrow *angu- enk, strizh kul cul cáel, cumung cúng cumhang coon
35 thin *koilo- moan, tanav moen, tanow tenau tanae, séim tanaí tana thanney
36 woman *bena maouez benyn gwraig, merch, dynes, menyw ben bean bean ben
37 man
(adult male)
*wiros gwaz, den, gour gwas, den, gour gŵr, dyn fer fear fear fer, dooinney
38 man
(human being)
*donyos den den dyn duine duine duine dooinney
39 child
(a youth)
*mustākos bugel flogh plentyn lenab, noídiu leanbh, páiste leanabh, pàiste lhiannoo, paitçhey
40 wife gwreg gwreg gwraig ben, séitig bean chéile bean-phòsda ben, ben phoost, ben heshey
41 husband gwaz gour gŵr fer, céile fear céile fear-pòsda dooinney, dooinney poost, sheshey, sheshey poost
42 mother *mātīr mamm mamm mam máthair máthair màthair moir
43 father *ɸatīr tad tas tad athair athair athair ayr
44 animal *mīlom loen, aneval enyval anifail anmandae, míl, robb ainmhí ainmhidh baagh, baaghtagh, bioagh, cretoor
45 fish *ɸēskos pesk pysk pysgodyn íasc iasc iasg eeast
46 bird *ɸatar labous, evn edhen aderyn én éan eun ushag

IIIEdit

English Proto-Celtic Breton Cornish Welsh Old Irish Irish Scottish Gaelic Manx
47 dog *kū ki ki ci , matad , madra, madadh , madadh moddey
48 louse *luwā laouenn lowenn lleuen míl étgudo, míl míol cnis mial meeyl
49 snake *natrik- naer, sarpant sarf neidr, sarff nathair nathair nathair aarnieu, ardnieu
50 worm *kʷrimi- buzhug, preñv pryv abwydyn cruim péist, cruimh, cnuimh cnuimh beishteig, beisht, dhiane
51 tree *kʷresno- gwezenn gwydhenn coeden, colfen, pren crann, fid crann, bile crann, craobh billey
52 forest *kaito- koad, koed koeswik coedwig, fforest caill, fid, fidbad, ruud, ros coill coille keyll
53 stick
(of wood)
*lorgā bazh lorgh ffon maide, flesc bata, maide bata, bioran, maide maidjey
54 fruit *sutu- frouezh froeth ffrwyth mess, torad toradh meas, toradh mess, troar
55 seed *segeto-, *sīlo- had, greun hasenn had síl síol sìol sheel, rass
56 leaf *dolyā, *dolnyā delienn delenn deilen duille duille duilleag duillag
57 root *wridā gwrizienn gwreydh gwraidd frém, mecon fréamh freumh fraue
58 bark
(of tree)
*rūsklo- rusk rusk rhisgl coirt, rúsc, croiccenn, crottball coirt rùsg roost
59 flower *blātu- bleuñv, fleur bleujenn blodyn bláth, scoth bláth blàth blaa
60 grass *gʷeltā geot, gwelt gwels gwellt fér féar feur faiyr
61 rope *lomanā kordenn lovan rhaff súainem, tét, loman téad ròpa tead
62 skin
(of a person)
*krokkeno-, *krokno- kroc'hen kroghen croen cnes, croiccenn craiceann craiceann crackan
63 meat
(as in flesh)
*mīros, *kīkā kig kig cig feóil, cúa feoil feòil feill
64 blood *krū gwad goes gwaed fuil, crú fuil fuil fuill
65 bone *knāmi-, *askurno- askorn askorn asgwrn cnáimh cnámh cnàimh craue
66 fat
(noun)
*gʷered- druzoni blonek saim blonac, béoil, íth, geir saill, blonag saill sahll, blennick
67 egg *āwyo- vi oy ŵy og ubh ugh ooh
68 horn *kornu- korn korn corn adarc, benn, corn adharc, corn adharc eairk, corn
69 tail *lostā lost lost cynffon, llost err, erball eireaball earball famman, arbyl

IVEdit

English Proto-Celtic Breton Cornish Welsh Old Irish Irish Scottish Gaelic Manx
70 feather
(rather not down)
pluñvenn pluvenn pluen cleitte cleite ite clooie, fedjag
71 hair *wolto- blev blew blew, gwallt grúac, folt, finna gruaig, folt gruag, falt gruag, folt
72 head *kʷenno- penn penn pen cenn ceann ceann kione
73 ear *ausos-, *kloustā skouarn skovarn clust clúas cluas cluas cleaysh
74 eye *lukato- lagad lagas llygad súil, rosc súil sùil sooill
75 nose *srognā fri troen trwyn srón srón sròn stroin
76 mouth genoù, muzelloù, beg ganow ceg, genau bél, gin béal beul beeal
77 tooth
(rather not molar)
*dants dant dans dant dét, fíacail fiacail, déad fiacail feeackle
78 tongue *tangʷat- teod taves tafod tengae teanga teanga çhengey
79 fingernail *angʷīnā ivin ewin ewin ingen ionga ìne ingin
80 foot *tregets troad, troed troes troed traig, cos cos cas cass
81 leg *koxsā gar garr coes cos cos cas cass, lurgey
82 knee *glūnos- glin glin glin, pen-glin glún glúin glùn glioon
83 hand *ɸlāmā dorn dorn llaw lám lámh làmh laue
84 wing *ɸatanī askell askell asgell, adenydd ette, scíath sciathán, ascaill sgiath skian
85 belly *bolgo- kof, tor torr, kroth bol, bola brú, bolg bolg brù, broinn bolg
86 guts bouzelloù kolodhyon perfedd cáelán, inathar inní caolan collane
87 neck *moni- gouzoug konna gwddf, mwnwgl brága, muin, muinél muineál muineal mwannal
88 back kein keyn cefn cúl, druimm droim druim dreeym
89 breast *bruson-, *kīkā bronn bronn bron cích cíoch, brollach cìoch keeagh
90 heart *kridyo- kalon kolonn calon cride croí cridhe cree
91 liver *awV- avu avi afu, iau óa ae adha aane
92 to drink *ɸib-o- evañ, evet eva yfed ibid ól òl iu

VEdit

English Proto-Celtic Breton Cornish Welsh Old Irish Irish Scottish Gaelic Manx
93 to eat *ed-o- debriñ, boueta dybri bwyta ithid ith ith ee
94 to bite *knā-yo- krogiñ, dantañ densel cnoi, brathu benaid, greimm bain greim as bìd greimmey
95 to suck *di-na- sunañ sugna, dena sugno súigid, dinid súigh, dúil sùigh soo, jiole
96 to spit skopat trewa, berya poeri do·beir saile caith seile tilg smugaid ceau shelley, tilgey shelley
97 to vomit *skiy-o- dislonkañ, c'hwedañ, reucheutiñ hwyja chwydu sceïd aisig sgeith skeeah, skeay
98 to blow
(as wind)
*swizd-o- c'hwezhañ hwytha chwythu séitid, do·infet séid sèid sheid
99 to breathe *ana- alanat, analañ anella anadlu do·beir anál análaigh tarraing anail tayrn ennal
100 to laugh *swar-yo- c'hoarzhin hwerthin chwerthin gáirid, tibid déan gáire gàir gearey
101 to see *wel-o- gwelet gweles gweld ad·cí feic faic faik
102 to hear *klew-o- klevet klywes clywed ro·cluinethar cluin, clois cluinn cluin, clasht
103 to know
(a fact)
*wi-n-d-o gouzout godhvos gwybod ro·fitir, at·tá a ḟis oc a fhios ag ... tha fios aig ... ta fys ec ...
104 to think *ambi-rād-ī- soñjal, prederiañ prederi meddwl imm·rádi, smúainid smaoinigh smaoinich smooinee
105 to smell
(sense odor)
klevet blasa, klywes arogli, clywed arogl boltaigidir bolaigh feuch fàileadh soaral
106 to fear *obno- kaout owen, aoniñ perthi own ofni, bod ag ofn ad·ágathar,
is ómun lawith subject as the object of la,
gaibid eclawith subject and object reversed,
eclaigid
eagla a bheith ort gabh eagal goaill aggle roish
107 to sleep *kuɸ-sko- kousket koska cysgu con·tuili codail bi ann do chadal cadley
108 to live *biwo- bevañ bywa byw ar·beir biuth, at·tá beó, maraid beo, mair bi beò bee bio, bee er mayrn
109 to die *ba-yo- mervel merwel marw at·baill, baïd, téit bás, fo·gaib bás faigh bás bàsaich geddyn baase
110 to kill *gʷan-o- lazhañ ladha lladd marbaid, gonaid, oirgid marbhaigh, slad marbh marr
111 to fight *wik-o- stourm, gouren omladh ymladd, brwydro fichid, cathaigid troid còmhraig caggey
112 to hunt
(transitive)
*selgā chaseal helghya hela ad·claid, do·seinn seilg sealg shelg
113 to hit *bi-na- skoiñ gweskel, skwatya taro benaid, sligid, slaidid, boingid, búailid buail buail bwoalley
114 to cut *skiy-o- troc'hañ treghi torri snaidid, do·esc, gerraid gearr geàrr giarrey
115 to split *dlo-n-g-o faoutañ folsa hollti dlongid scoilt sgoilt scoltey, skeiltey

VIEdit

English Proto-Celtic Breton Cornish Welsh Old Irish Irish Scottish Gaelic Manx
116 to stab
(or stick)
gwanañ gwana, pyghya gwanu, trywanu cailgid, tollaid rop sàth seiy
117 to scratch
(an itch)
*razd-o- skrabat, kravat kravas cosi scrípaid, tochasaid tochais sgròb screebey
118 to dig *klad-o- kleuzañ palas cloddio, palu claidid tochail cladhaich cleigh, reurey
119 to swim *snā- neuñviñ neuvya nofio snáïd snámh snàmh snaue
120 to fly *ɸet-o- nijal nijal hedfan fo·luathar eitil itealaich etlagh, ettyl
121 to walk *keng-o- kerzhet, bale kerdhes cerdded siblaid, teít siúil coisich shooyl
122 to come dont dos dod do·icc, do·tét tar thig çheet, tar
123 to lie
(as on one's side)
*leg-o- gourvez gorwedhes gorwedd laigid luigh laigh lhie
124 to sit *sed-o- azezañ esedha eistedd saidid suigh suidh soie
125 to stand *sistā- sevel sevel sefyll do·airissedar seas seas shass
126 to turn
(change direction)
*suw-o- troiñ treylya troi sóïd, imm·sói cas till cassey
127 to fall
(as in drop)
*ki-yo kouezhañ koedha cwympo, disgyn, syrthio do·tuit tit tuit tuitt
128 to give *dā- reiñ ri rhoi do·beir tabhair tabhair toyr
129 to hold
(in one's hand)
*delg-o- dalc'hen, derc'hel synsi, dalghenna dal, dala gaibid coinnigh cùm cum
130 to squeeze stardañ, gwaskañ gwaska, gwrynya, strotha gwasgu tendaid, fáiscid, timsaigid fáisc teannaich çhionney, faastey, craishtey
131 to rub frotañ rutya rhwbio con·meil cuimil suath rubbal
132 to wash *nig-yo- gwalc'hiñ, golc'hiñ golghi golchi nigid, fothraicid, folcaid, ind·aim nigh nigh niee
133 to wipe torchañ, sec'hañ sygha sychu cuimil suath glenney, rubbal
134 to pull sachañ, tennañ tenna tynnu do·srenga, srengaid tarraing tarraing tayrn
135 to push bountañ herdhya, pokya gwthio ad·aig brúigh brùth broo
136 to throw *kat-yo- teurel, chetañ tewlel taflu fo·ceird, sréïd, do·léci, caithid, sneidid caith tilg ceau, tilg
137 to tie *wed-o- eren, koulmañ kelmi clymu, rhwymo con·rig, sníid, cenglaid ceangail ceangail kiangley
138 to sew *nē-yo- gwriat gwrias, sewya gwnïo úaigid fuaigh fuaigh whaaley, fuailley

VIIEdit

English Proto-Celtic Breton Cornish Welsh Old Irish Irish Scottish Gaelic Manx
139 to count *rimā kontañ nivera, akontya, amontya rhifo rímid cuntais cùnnt coontey
140 to say *labar-o- lavaret leverel siarad as·beir, ráidid abair abair abbyr
141 to sing *kan-o- kanañ kana canu canaid can seinn goaill arrane, kiaulley
142 to play *kon-rig-o-, *uɸo-rig-o- c'hoari gwari chwarae imm·beir, cluichigidir imir cluich cloie
143 to float neuviñ, flotañ neuvella nofio snáïd snámh bi a' fleòdradh snaue
144 to flow *liy-o- deverañ dinewi, bera llifo snigid, silid, bruinnid, do·lin snigh ruith stroo, sheeley, shiaulley, thooilley
145 to freeze reviñ, skornañ rewi rhewi reódaid, téchtaid reoigh reòdh riojey
146 to swell *swēd-o- c'hwezañ hwythfi chwyddo attaid, bolgaid at at att
147 sun *sāwūl heol howl haul grían grian grian grian
148 moon *louχsnā loar loer lleuad, lloer ésca, gealach gealach eayst
149 star *sterā steredenn, sterenn steren seren rétglu, rind réalt rionnag rollage
150 water *dubrā, *uden-sk-yo dour dowr dŵr uisce, dobur uisce, dobhar uisge ushtey
151 rain *wolko-, *glawā glav glaw glaw bráen, flechud báisteach, fearthainn frasachd fliaghey
152 river *abū, *abonā stêr, aven, rinier avon afon ab abhainn abhainn awin
153 lake *linnā lenn lynn llyn loch, linn loch, linn loch logh
154 sea
(as in ocean)
*mori mor mor môr muir, fairrge, ler, trethan muir, farraige muir, cuan, fairge mooir, keayn, faarkey
155 salt *salano- holen hoelan halen salann salann salann sollan
156 stone *magino- maen men maen, carreg cloch, lía cloch clach clagh
157 sand *grāwā traezh tewes tywod gainem gaineamh gainmheach geinnagh
158 dust poultrenn polter, doust llwch lúaithred, lúaith deannach stùr joan
159 earth
(as in soil)
*talamū douar dor daear talam, úir talamh talamh thalloo
160 cloud koumoul kommolenn cwmwl nél scamall, néal sgòth, neul bodjal, niaul
161 fog *kiwo- morenn, nivlenn niwl niwl ceó ceo ceò kay

VIIIEdit

English Proto-Celtic Breton Cornish Welsh Old Irish Irish Scottish Gaelic Manx
162 sky *nemos oabl, neñv ebrenn wybren nem, aer aer, spéir adhar, speur aer, speyr, niau
163 wind
(as in breeze)
*winto- avel, gwent gwyns gwynt gáeth gaoth gaoth geay
164 snow *argyo-, *snigʷyo- erc'h ergh eira snechta sneachta sneachd sniaghtey
165 ice *yegi- skorn rew aig oighear eighre, eigh, deigh rio
166 smoke *mukV moged mog mwg deatach ceò, toit jaagh
167 fire *teɸnet- tan tan tân teine, daig, áed tine teine aile, çhenney
168 ash *lowtu- ludu lusow lludu lúaith luaith luath leoie
169 to burn
(intransitive)
*daw-yo- deviñ, leskiñ leski llosgi bruthnaigidir, teinnid dóigh loisg lostey
170 road *sentu- hent fordh ffordd bóthar, rót, conar, slige bóthar rathad raad, bayr
171 mountain *moniyo- menez menydh mynydd slíab, benn sliabh beinn slieau
172 red *roudos, *kokko- ruz rudh coch, rhudd derg, rúad, flann rua, dearg ruadh, dearg ruy, jiarg
173 green *glasto- glas, gwer gwyrdh glas, gwyrdd glas, úaine glas, uaine glas, uaine glass, eayney
174 yellow *bodyo- melen melyn melyn buide buí buidhe buigh
175 white *windos, *bānos gwenn gwynn gwyn bán, finn bán, fionn geal bane, fynn
176 black *dubus du du du dub dubh dubh doo
177 night *noxs noz nos nos adaig oíche oidhche oie
178 day
(daytime)
*diy- deiz, dez dedh dydd , día laa
179 year *blēdnī bloaz, bloavezh blydhen blwyddyn bliadain bliain bliadhna blein
180 warm
(as in weather)
*teɸsmi- tomm, toemm toemm cynnes, twym te te blàth çheh
181 cold
(as in weather)
*ougros yen, yein yeyn oer úar fuar fuar feayr
182 full *ɸlānos leun leun llawn lán lán làn lane
183 new *nowyos nevez nowydh newydd núa nua, úr ùr, nuadh noa, oor
184 old *senos kozh, (old) hen koth, hen hen sen sean sean shenn

IXEdit

English Proto-Celtic Breton Cornish Welsh Old Irish Irish Scottish Gaelic Manx
185 good *dagos, *matis mat, (old) da da, mas da, mad maith, dag, so- maith, dea- math mie
186 bad *drukos fall, drouk drog drwg olc, droch- olc, droch-, dona dona, olc olk, drogh
187 rotten
(as, a log)
*bragnos brein breyn, poder braen, pwdr brén lofa, bréan lobhte loau, breinn
188 dirty *salākos lous plos brwnt, budr salach salach salach sollagh, broghe, breinnagh
189 straight eeun ewn syth díriuch díreach dìreach jeeragh
190 round *krundi- ront, krenn krenn crwn cruinn cruinn cruinn cruinn
191 sharp
(as a knife)
*kerbo- lemm lymm miniog, llym gér, áith géar geur geyre
192 dull
(as a knife)
*mailo- dall pŵl máel maol maol moal
193 smooth *slimono- lintr, levn leven, gwastas llyfn réid, mín mín mìn meein, rea
194 wet *wlikʷu- gwleb glyb, gwlygh gwlyb fliuch fliuch fliuch fliugh
195 dry
(adjective)
*siskʷo- sec'h sych sych tírim tirim tioram çhirrym
196 right
(correct)
*eɸino- reizh ewn iawn, cywir, certh cert, cóir ceart ceart kiart
197 near *onko- tost, ogos ogas agos ocus cóngarach, in aice faisg, dlùth faggys, er çheu, er gerrey
198 far *kʷeslo, *kēno- pell pell pell cían, i fat fada fada foddey
199 right
(side)
*deχsiwo- dehou deghow de dess deas deas jesh
200 left
(side)
*klēyo- kleiz, klez kledh chwith clé, túath- clé clì clee, toshtal
201 at *onko- da orth at, wrth oc ag aig ec
202 in *eni e, en, e-barzh, ba yn yn, mewn i i ann ayns
203 with
(accompanying)
*kom, *kantā gant, get gans â, gan, gyda, efo co, la, i n-arrad le le lesh, marish
204 and *-kʷe, *atkʷe, *eti ha, hag ha, hag a ocus agus agus as
205 if *smā ma, mar, pe mar os, pe , día , ma, nan my, ga
206 because abalamour ma, peogwir drefenn achos, oherwydd óre óir oir er-yn-oyr
207 name *anman anv hanow enw ainmm ainm ainm ennym
Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Antillean Creole – Arabic (standard) (p), Egyptian Arabic (p), Palestinian Arabic (p), Tunisian Arabic (t) – Armenian (t,p) – Aromanian – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Breton – Bulgarian (t) – Burmese (t,p) – Catalan – Chechen – Chinese: Cantonese, Gan (p), Mandarin (t,p), Min Nan (Amoy) (p), Old Chinese (p) – Czech – Danish – Dutch (p) – Egyptian (Middle)  – Esperanto (p) – Estonian – Finnish – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – French (p) – Frisian (West) – Friulian – Georgian (t,p) – German (p) – Greek (modern) (p), Greek (ancient) – Guaraní – Haida – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hawaiian – Hindi (t) – Hittite – Hmong (White) (p) – Hungarian – Icelandic – Indonesian – Interlingue – Irish (p) – Istro-Romanian – Italian (p) – Japanese (t) – Kashubian – Khmer (p) – Korean (t) – Kurdish – Latin – Latvian – Lingala – Lingua Franca Nova – Lithuanian – Luwian – Macedonian (t) – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian (t) – Old Portuguese (p) – Ossetian (p) – Polish (p) – Portuguese (p) – Proto-Indo-European – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian (p) – Sanskrit (t) – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Sinhalese – Slovenian – Spanish (p) – Sranan – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tajik (t) – Tahitian – Thai (t) – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Zulu

Language families and family branches

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian – Altaic – Araucanian – Austro-Asiatic – Australian – Austronesian – Baltic – Baltic-Finnic – Bantu – Celtic – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Frisian – Germanic – Hokan – Iberian – Indo-Aryan – Indo-Iranian – Indo-Iranian (extended) – Italian – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan – Slavic – Siouan – Tai–Kadai – Tibeto-Burman – Tupi–Guarani – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

The list may also include: (t) the transcription in Latin characters; (p) the phonetic transcription