Last modified on 27 March 2013, at 14:31

Appendix:Swadesh lists for Oto-Manguean languages

This is a table of Swadesh lists for Oto-Manguean languages, with Totonacan, Mixe-Zoquean, Huave, and Tequistlatecan languages also included for comparative purposes. Included are:

  • Otomi (Hidalgo, Mexico)
  • Triqui (Western Oaxaca, Mexico) — San Juan Copala
  • Mixtec (Guerrero and Oaxaca, Mexico) — Tlaxiaco/Putla area Mixtec; unknown dialect
  • Zapotec (Oaxaca, Mexico) — Isthmus variant
  • Zapotec (Oaxaca, Mexico) — Villa Alta (Xhon) variant
  • Mazahua (State of Mexico, Mexico)
  • Totonac (Northern Veracruz, Mexico) — Totonacan language
  • Popoluca, Sierra (Southern Veracruz, Mexico) — Mixe-Zoquean language
  • Huave (Oaxaca, Mexico) — language isolate; San Francisco del Mar dialect
  • Chontal, Highland (Oaxaca, Mexico) — Tequistlatecan language (probably part of Hokan); San Matías dialect

Notes:

  • Isthmus Zapotec: 1 = low, 2 = rising, 3 = high, j = nasalization; no tone values = falling tone on final syllable, low tones on the rest.
  • Highland Chontal: "ł" (l-bar) is roughly pronounced as "hl" ("jl" in traditional Spanish orthography). The letter "h" is used as a glottal stop. The prefixes "gal-" and "la-" (with its variants) are often added to roots or stems. The "gu" is a hard "g," not "gw." Verb affixes include "di-" and "-hma," and noun affixes include "ła-" and "(g)al-."
  • Tones are not given for various languages, since they are not of paramount importance for comparative purposes.
  • Also, additional vocabulary words have been added after word no. 207 ("name"), since the original lengths of Swadesh lists are either 100 or 207 words.
English Otomi Triqui Proto-Mixtec Mixtec Zapotec
(Isthmus)
Zapotec
(Xhon)
Mazahua Totonac Popoluca Huave Chontal
1 I nuga̲ 'ùnj *yuʔu na (informal), ri (formal) naa nheda, nhaa ik uts xiok iyáh
2 you
(singular)
nu'i sò', dì' (intimate) ro'o (informal), ni'in (formal) lii lhe' (informal), le'e (formal) ', -na mich iok imáh
3 he nu'ä, nä'ä so' ra, yɨ laa1be2 lebe je' ñu jiquiya
4 we nugawi ní' (incl.), núj (excl.) yo'o, ri; nde'e laa1nu2 (incl.), laa1du2 (excl.) nheto' ïjtsat kunar, kunajts (incl.);
xinan (excl.)
iyángc'
5 you
(plural)
nu'iwi soj ndo laa1tu2 le’en, le’eque míchat inan imángc'
6 they nu’u nii nda laa1ca1be2 le’equebe ñuaf jiniya
7 this nuna nihánj *weyè yo'o, xa'a ri’3 u ki jitaha
8 that nu'ä dan, yo' *yuku à yukan ca2 a yajtï’n jicuhua
9 here nuwa nihánj yo'o, xa'a che1rí’2 u yam ñinga faha
10 there nu'bu̲ yo', ti'yaj (distal) kaa che1ri1ca’3 aná jem, yajm tikej jiłuhwa, jipuhwa
11 who togo me síí, me níí (fem.) navi, unku tu2 nhoo ti jang nay, ne
12 what temu me nda, ndavi, unku gu1ná’2 bii tu kuñ de
13 where ho'bu̲ me rej, tonj nuu ni, ra, gu1ná’2 gaaxha nikú ke(j) be
14 when hä'mu̲ me aman, me orá *awà nama, na, nuu pad1xí3, ora ikxnicu ngaty (past),
ngoy (future)
dej hora
15 how hanja('ä) dàj *ndese nasaa xi1 caasi2 latayá keñ de ts'ihíc'
16 not hin- ne, sè tu, koto, ko ansu nin ngo ahí
17 all ta̲t’i, ga̲tho cunù' ndi'i gui1du2bi1, gui1rá’2 yogo, dote, bala miaw ajaf'ga, dalay, jaway
18 many ndunthe, nts'e̲di me dòj kua'a, kini sta1le2 zan snún, loko mayo’y xuwe agwegah, axpéh, mufca
19 some 'naxtui dòj sava, uu algo (Spanish)
20 few tx'u̲tho dòj lo'o, xaku, tɨ'lɨ caad1xi2, hua1xié’3 lhate agsú, tantsú tyukay awatáh, duninih
21 other ma ‘na yo'ó *tuku ɨnka sti3, sto3bi1 tunu ogwena
22 one n'aha 'ò, yo'ò ɨɨn tobi to d'aja túm tu'c anop anuli
23 two yoho vìj *uwi uvi chu1pa2 chope yeje tuy meche ajpaw oguéh
24 three hñu va'nùj *one uni chon1na2 shone jñiji tutu túgup arujpaw afanéh
25 four goho ca'ànj *kɨwìʔ kuun tapa tape nziyo tati máctaxp apokiuf amalbu
26 five ku̲t’a 'ùn', u'ùn' *oʔò u'un gaayu' gayo' tsicha kitsis mogoxp akokiaf amagueh
27 big dätä *kaʔnu ka'un, chee ngo2la1, xirooba' daxhen, cha’o nojo langa mïj -dam ujxi, agwegah (an)
28 long maki xcààn kani na1yu’3la’1, naziuula' tona slmán, laslmán idogui
29 wide nxidi, xogi cachrà' xicha nabata, na1la2ga1 pulanga, tilanga tarrap expats'gui, ewofma, luxpayyah
30 thick mpidi, ndä ca'nù', mànj kukun na1na1na2 yize, chej kelanga (person) tsapaj ibinggui
31 heavy hñu̲ 'èè *weyi vee zi' trinka agundah
32 small tx'u̲lo cunii lulu, lo'o na1biu2xe2, nahuiini' dao, rhinco lagtsu namix ahuinuh
33 short tx'u̲ki, nkohi chrè' lɨkɨ nachucu agahua, ahua
34 narrow nts'it'i, nts'i'mi catùùn, chrùj tuu na1bé’2 atúguic adansca, łijca
35 thin nts'u̲t'i catùn' (flat obj.) kuɨñɨ, xii, leke na1la1se’2 lhase ketsú péjay axalóf, ałá
36 woman 'be̲hñä chanà ña, ña ɨ'ɨ gunaa nhol'le nzhixu puxkat to’xay najta łagahno
37 man
(adult male)
'ño̲ho̲ chii, no'o, snó'o *teye taa nguiiu, ngola (male) beyo chiskú qui’chay naxuy galxáns
38 man
(human being)
jä'i yuviì *yè yɨwɨʔ ɨvɨ bin1ni2, guidxi bene jayau ñipinaj galxans
39 child
(a youth)
bätsi cunii, ne'ej (small) lulu, lili ba'du', xiiñi' bi'- t'ii skata -chwáy ñunch, kwal łahuac'wa,
lapimi (baby)
40 wife 'be̲hñä nicà (ña)sɨ'ɨ puskát łabeno
41 husband ndo̲ nicà *yɨɨʔ ii bene xhi’o takoló no łaguweh
42 mother nänä nii nana jñaa2 xnha’ tsi mam mam łamamah
43 father tada rej tata bixhoze xa taa tikú, tlat tet tyety łahal-lih
44 animal zu'we xcuu *kɨtɨʔ kɨtɨ ma1ni’3 be nzhodú kitsistanka animat (Spanish) łinneja
45 fish hwä xcuaj chaka benda bela' jmoo skiti acx katy,
-ndok (verb)
ładu
46 bird ts'ints'u̲ xtaj *tɨ laa saa ma1ni3 huiini’1 bechhoj súú spún jojn kuk łaga, kaguo
47 dog tsat'yo, txu̲ku̲ chuvee ina bi'cu' beco' dyoo chicha tac kius galtsiqui
48 louse t'o xij chuku bese too skata łayxtał
49 snake pa̲ xcuáá *kooʔ koo beenda' bel luwa tsánay łaynofał
50 worm zu'we, matse̲ xlúú tɨkashin, tɨndaku bi1cu1ti’3 beldao luwa łabimi
51 tree zaa chruun *yutùʔ yutun, yujnu yaga ya'g zanu kiwi cujy xiol alhec, loli
52 forest mbozaa nuyuxia ya'gdao t'eje galhec'
53 stick
(of wood)
'ma̲i (post) yutun, vitun yaga xhis kiwi tsïgïc alhec
54 fruit ixi chruj vixi, nde'e xuananaxhi dazixe' xatawakatkiwi tüjm kaung łihas q'uec
55 seed nda̲ 'núú ndɨkɨn biidxi' binhe, xhi’in lichanat sajp galfanúh, łemets
56 leaf xi, thot'i coj, ra'a coj nda'a yuku yaza, bandaga laga camdïjc (fallen) up libela
57 root 'yu̲ yáá yo'o xcu lhoe tankaxák tícchic lime
58 bark
(of tree)
'ma̲ts'i quíí riga -pang, orr (shell) lixmi q'uec
59 flower do̲ni yaj ita guie' yej xánat píjic libah
60 grass pasto (Spanish) coj iva guixi beu’2/ga’3 yixe' sox lixcua q'uec
61 rope nthähi ya'aa yo'o doo do tasiwi almefla, lene
62 skin
(of a person)
xifni nuj ñɨɨ guidi wid xuwa ac tajk labixmi
63 meat
(as in flesh)
ngo̲ neè *koyò neè bee1la2 belha' liwa uñijk lixíc'
64 blood ji ton *nɨyɨ`ʔ nɨñɨ rini chhenhe kagslni nípin łajuáts'
65 bone ndo'yo cúú yɨkɨ dxita xhita lukut legał
66 fat
(noun)
hnoho, nziki ramii, casté (oil) *seʔè xa'an za za -xap (fatten) fungi
67 egg mädo, t’axi chruj *ndɨwɨʔ ndɨvɨ dxita zit kaslwát coy um łabihe
68 horn ndäni cúú raà *ndɨkɨʔ ndɨkɨ ca2chu1 akalókot waj legał
69 tail ts'u̲ tucuáán *luʔwèʔ su'ma, ndo'ma pjixi taján tu’jts labo
70 feather
(rather not down)
xi'ni *towì tuu duubi' puik labimi
71 hair xtä cutziin ixi, idi guicha dobe ñii chíxit cuajy undiats łajuac
72 head ñäxu̲mu raà yichj ique ndoñi xakxaka, akxaka cópac -mal łajuac
73 ear zagu xréé *loʔo so'o diaga nhag xúrgo taken tátsïc -lajk laxhmas
74 eye da̲ rlij rihaan, rnee rihaan rlij bezalú yełao choo lakastapu wijn -ñujk lahu
75 nose xiñu tacúún *sitìʔ xɨtin xii xinha' xiño kinkán jïjp -xing łahnał
76 mouth ne tu'va *yuʔuʔ yu'u ruaa chho'a nee kislni ajw -mbe lago
77 tooth
(rather not molar)
ts'i cúú yan' *noʔo un'un laya lay sib'i tatsán tïjts -laik lahay
78 tongue jähne daa, yaa, laa yaa diidxa', lud1xi2 lochhe' b'onkjua (cow) simakat ajw -ñiw łabał
79 fingernail xa̲ cúú sten, cúú ston tiñu bi1xu1ga2 xogo' xojo siján xojc łahnałuc
80 foot wa tacóó xa'a, sɨ'ɨn batañee ni'a nguaa tujún ta’n -lyej lahmis
81 leg xinthe tacóó san'da bid1xi3ñee1, batañee ni'a chjange tuntún lahmis
82 knee ñähmu raà rùj yɨkɨ xɨtɨ xibi xhib ñijmo tsokosni kos łengone
83 hand 'ye̲ ra'a nda'a ba1ta1ná’2 nha dyee makán cu’ wix lamane
84 wing jwa xcóó *ndixì ndɨxin xhiaa juaa pakán quegan ulaim laxáł
85 belly xefo rque, scoj chii ndaani' yej le'e pjeme pan tínchay -taing laguhu
86 guts xafo xri' *xɨtɨ xitɨ doo xqui' xjalo -miajts lugwiyale
87 neck 'yu̲ga̲ chihá *sukùʔ sukun yanni yen jiúkjú pixni -ñok łajoc'
88 back xu̲tha xráá sata, sɨkɨ deche coze' xútjú agslchán laxpulah
89 breast 'ba, tiñä (chest) tzii xika xidxi lacho' tijmi tsíkit, kuxmún (chest) jiu łonxajmah
90 heart mu̲i rá, nimán nɨma, añu ladxidó' lazdao' múbú nakú calitsíc łonxajmah
91 liver ya rayaj staxa'a la'dxi' winhe, xcheta kjúrga slwakaka ik łada
92 to drink tsithe, 'bet'i 'o ko'o re', ru1cuii1dxi2 ziji kotnún tïnucp -ngañu dixnahma
93 to eat tsi, ñuni chá *xexiʔ kaki ro gwago ñona kuá -ty didehma
94 to bite tsa chihan' tɨɨn ro yaa, ruquiichi' zakú skanán -tsamb digahma
95 to suck juts’i utaan tɨ'vɨ radxi, rin1dii2 tïnco’yp ditsihma
96 to spit tsogi araa talúj, rii talúj ti'vi ruchá xhin1ni2 isputnán ditsuł'ihma
97 to vomit e̲i, 'yaha uchráán nduña r(us)idxi'ba' weyeb patlanán ï’tsp tiorr dinajhma
98 to blow
(as wind)
jwixt'i a'yánj kaxa, tɨvɨ ruchá bi, run1du1bi2 búú difushma
99 to breathe nju̲xu̲hñä sita ... tachi ricaa1 bi3 dunxahma
100 to laugh thede, theni a'nga' kuaku ru1xid1xi2 wexhize’ -kwik dixohma
101 to see nu ne'en, ni'yàj *ndeʔya kuni, koto ru1si1ná2, ruuya' welhe’e nuu ikxilá tïne’p -ñi diximhma
102 to hear o̲de uno kuni so'o runa diaga chhen tïmárap -nge digyejhma
103 to know
(a fact)
ät’i chá kuni nan2na1 katso tïnixtacp (people) jaw diximhma
104 to think mbeni, 'yomfeni avii raà ndo'o ... ini riní ique lagpuwan -tiots digwahma
105 to smell
(sense odor)
yu̲ni uchrunj *siko ta'mi, kuxa'an rindá', riguba xii mukus dujueda
106 fear ntsu, xikwa chu'vi' *yuʔwi yu'u ridxibi chhechenhi’i tïnïxp xogotni’c
(verb)
-mbol łaxpayguih
107 to sleep ähä otoj kusun rasi, rusisiaasi' wetas asltatá -me dixmayhma
108 to live ‘bui ne, yáán koo, chakoo ri1be1za2 tsïnap dibajmhma
109 to die tu avi' kuvi rati wate, chat -ndyu dimahna
110 to kill ho ticavi' ka'ni ruu1ti2 wet, chhot magní -mbi dimáhahma
111 to fight ntuhni, ntsa̲ anó tuvi', unu' kanaa, kinyɨɨ ri1din1de2 taratlawá
112 to hunt
(transitive)
pe̲, k'ahni noco' k'ani rie guuze' xhejsa (noun) talatnán tínquep dihnołhma
113 to hit fant’i, umbi chi'i ri1ga1pa2, ri1gui1ñe2 we' dibahma
114 to cut he̲ki a'ne' ka'ncha, kaxa ruchuugu', rugá tïnpuxtucp ndojky-;
ajch (chop)
dihwitsoda
115 to split he̲ni t'avi richeza, ri1gui1che2 mbajk-; chiot (break) debíhihma
116 to stab
(or stick)
sut'i kani tïnmï’cxp -tsoly denahma
117 to scratch
(an itch)
xe̲t'i, xaki utuù koyo ri1guu1ñe2,
ruuza1 xhuga2
taxtí koch debułhma, degofijmhma
118 to dig he̲t'i váán kata -ojty dibuhma
119 to swim 'ña̲the o' ... xtáj sucha rixuuba' ixkiwatnán tïyump digafgayhma
120 to fly nsa̲ni ndachi wezo zinzapjú tïquecp -laly diyuhma
121 to walk ‘yowa chéé kaka rizá nzhodú tïyo’yp -jay dihuahma
122 to come ehe 'na' kixi ree1da2 chhida min tïmimp -pe, -liok digwaynawo
123 to lie
(as on one's side)
‘be̲ni nukava ra'ta', rixá tamá tïncumdacp piaj dunawayhma
124 to sit hudi nukoo ribí tawilá tïntsïndacp tsot- digutswayhma
125 to stand 'ba̲i kandichi riasa nanga takí lomb-
126 to turn
(change direction)
‘ba̲t'i ri1bi1gue1ta’3 -ndil dugwif'hma
127 to fall
(as in drop)
ta̲gi, ho̲e ayanj ndikava riruche yuja, sltuglí pogolnaxp -lich, -ndach didangguewo, diyujhma
128 to give uni (na)rqué, o' kua'a, taxi rudii, rusiga'de' mastá, maxkí tïnmoyp -jch debíhihma, diguhma
129 to hold
(in one's hand)
hä, mihi kutii denajc'ohma
130 to squeeze te̲'mi riguié, rixii tïnactsï’csp dumejhma
131 to rub koxt'i rixubi dumiłhma
132 to wash pet'e, xu̲ki nakacha riguiibi' chakenán jants debajhma
133 to wipe thuki nditivi dedufhma, dunashma
134 to pull ju̲t'i nucuàj, xuun xisita rigu'ba', ruruuxha' wecao dexałhma, dinihehma,
duwanayhma
135 to push tuki tiguíj (ra'a) kakin, siki'in ri1lá2, rucaa1 ná’2 tantlaglín dihuanshma
136 to throw u̲ts'i kakin, siki'in ruchá makán degahnihma
137 to tie tut'i run1dii1bi2 difihehma
138 to sew 'we̲ti nuvá *ku ɨku kiku ri1gui1ba2 gobe lixtokó cu’un’p -ay denatsołhma
139 to count pede nanó ka'vi ru1ga1ba’3 -tyu dixuejhmehma, dinefohma
140 to say mä, xifi taj, tu'va kachi rabi wenha, choe’, diidze’ mama, ñaa kuan inïmp, tïnyïmp -ndiak digwahma, dimihma
141 to sing tuhu achráá kata rusiguunda', ruunda' wela’a ïp dunac'hma
142 to play 'ñeni tico kusɨkɨ riguite witj (game) akamanán ícpay -tsoj dif'ilhma
143 to float hñe̲nts'i rixuba1 laahua2
144 to flow tihi, nextri ri1dá2, ruxooñe'
145 to freeze ntse̲
146 to swell hneni xaa ridxá/ruchá gui yi dewofc'ohma
147 sun hyadi güii kandii gubidxa gobiz jiarú chichiní xïjw naty galhora
148 moon zänä yavii yoo beeu ibo' zana papá po' kaf galmuł'a
149 star tso̲ho̲ yati' choxini beleguí (archaic) belhj seje stakú majts ukas galxamna
150 water dehe na *ndute nducha nisa nhis ndeje chúchut iow lajah
151 rain 'ye maàn *sawiʔ savi, dau, sau nisa guie yejo dyeb'e sen tu wijchior łagwi
152 river däthe, hñe chráá *yute yuta guiigu' yego ndareje kasltuchoko mïjnï lam albanah
153 lake zabi mini lagu (Spanish) yelha yacht linajmah
154 sea
(as in ocean)
däzabi na ya'ànj nducha ñɨɨ nisadó' nhisdao ndazapjú pupunú ndyuik łaja
155 salt u yaan *yɨɨ`ʔ ñɨɨ zidi zede' öö mátsat can łohwe
156 stone do, ma'ye, ndo̲do yahij *yuuʔ yuu guie ye'j ndojo chiwix kang łabíc
157 sand 'bomu yo'óó chrùù ñɨtɨ yuxi yoxhe ñaxú muntsay po’y wiujt łibimats'
158 dust fonthai tachruù, yachruù tɨkacha (yu) dé bixte xijumú pokxni łabi, galhufga, łifuh
159 earth
(as in soil)
hai yo'óó ñu'un layú yo jumú tiyat nax iot łamats'
160 cloud gui ngaa viko za bejo ngomú pukslni wintuc oik lummaway
161 fog 'bo̲ngui, 'bipa ngaa ya'àan gupa zendao dedíhihma lummaway
162 sky mahets'i rihaan Ya'anj andɨvɨ guibá', xaibá' yaba' ajense akapón tsajp tsajkats lemaha
163 wind
(as in breeze)
ndähi nanà *tatiʔ tachi bi be' un xe’m ion ławah
164 snow xija yu've' yu'va beye' xitsji longni
165 ice tse̲ yu've' yu'va ielu (Spanish) beye' xitsji miki
166 to smoke tsiyu̲i catze', xrón (noun) *yuʔwè ka'mi gu'xhu' chwa’ ikulí tïju’cp sop (noun) dijuehma
167 fire tsibi *yuʔù ñu'un gui yi' islkuyat jïjn łunga
168 ash 'bospi yaj yaa de slkaka cuyjam ngwiat łabi
169 to burn
(intransitive)
tsät'i ka'mi, kayu riana slkú -ndajp dibihehma
170 road ts’ixt’u‘ñu, 'ñu chrej ichi neza nhez ñii tijia tou tiujt lane
171 mountain t'o̲ho̲, mbots'i quij *yukuʔ yuku gui'xhi' ya'a dyáá kasipitni cópac tiok łijuala
172 red the̲ni ve'èj *kweʔe kua'a na1xi1ñá’2 xna kjipobú spiníni, tsutsoko tsábats unxalí
173 green k’ants’i, k’a’mi mareè kuii na1ber2de1 (Spanish) ga' stákga xúxuc axuayga, uxcua
174 yellow k'axt'i míí, mayàj *kwaà kuaan naguchi gashe slmukúku pú’tsputs mbuwiol adahajngga, undahe
175 white t'axi catzìì kuixin, xikɨyɨ na1qui1chi’3 xhilh toxú sakaka, snapapa po'p galfujga
176 black 'bo, pothe maruù nuu nayaase' gasj potjú tsitsaka yïgïc na umi
177 night nxui yan' niñu gueela', huaxhinni chhel, gol xoma tsisní tsu' ungius libuguih
178 day
(daytime)
pa güii *kɨwɨʔ kɨvɨ dxi za paa kakuwiní xïm naty lidine
179 year je̲ya yo' *kwiya kuiya iza iza tsjema kata xíwit ñiat łamats'
180 warm
(as in weather)
mpani *iʔniʔ i'ni nan1dá’3 (hot) da'la paa chíchi pówic (noun) ajoygah; inúh (hot)
181 cold
(as in weather)
ntse̲ coj vɨxin nananda zaga jotú lognún, kawitutá kiñ axida
182 full ñuts'i nichràa, nù' sikuku (verb) na1ze2, dxa’2 nza', yoz nizhi tatsamá imanna, ixuayda
183 new 'ra'yo nacà xaa na1cu2bi1 rhita, cobe sasti námay ats'é
184 old xita, txu ngà, re'èè chee, yata na1hue2la1 golha makám ámpay nataxuy, ngarrats aguweh
185 good za, hogi nò, sà' *waʔa va'a na1cha’3hui’1, yo2 joo tlan oy ñe ac'a
186 bad nts'o chi'ìì kue'e na1dxa1ba’3 xhi'a nitlán malo’c (Spanish) ahij mejor
187 rotten
(as, a log)
'ya richruù (of wood) *teʔyu kue'e nayuudxu' gozo' masnít tyux, -pandy (verb) iweł'gui
188 dirty nts'o caniquè', rìn' ña'an nabiidi', nachipa ne’e, bziwe’, besjo tsintsíli -nay axujc'a
189 straight njwäntho ndoo sluloko, tanes -lyeng
190 round tsant’i cachrìin, xòò *kute tɨloo bi1tu1 xi3ga1 (noun) blol stilili axpeyyugui
191 sharp
(as a knife)
hye̲nte, hño naca (verb) xaan na1du1xhu’3
192 dull
(as a knife)
doñä natuumbu'
193 smooth nts'u̲k nu'vè *lɨʔwɨʔ kama, lɨɨ nadxiibi' łuc', abijga
194 wet nk'a, mobo 'yòò vixa nadxé' chítwa xó’guic -kats ijagui
195 dry
(adjective)
'yot'i, 'ñoni nacòò ichɨ nabidxi skakni -wajk ijuł
196 right
(correct)
hogi ndaa jneza ojo'o iyacxtá’cway ałingca, ma dałmay
197 near getu̲'bu̲ nichrùn' *yetì yati gaxha gawte tom da, awejngga
198 far ya'bu̲ gàn' xika, kani zitu jëë mákat aguli(h) lane
199 right
(side)
'ñe̲i nuvà' kua'a licha pagkanat óyim alc'a
200 left
(side)
ngähä nichrùun sati bi1ga’3 yegarha, rhebesle pakxuki anájyim loxa
201 at nuu nag tiol
202 in ja, nu ini kja lema al
203 with
(accompanying)
-hu, -wi, ko xiin né2 ta lak
204 and ne dò', nè tin, ta ne2 i y
205 if nu'bu̲, ha sese vee pa2 para tiol janih
206 because ngetho, nge'ä che'é rej *wati chi pur1ti’3
207 name thuhu se-chuvìi *sɨwɨʔ kɨvɨ lha takuwiní nï’jy laftine
208 house nguu ve' *weʔyi ve'e yoo, lidxi yo'o ngumú chiki tïjc iom lajuł'
209 wall jot'i tacóó ve' *nawà nama cue’1 yoo3 ze'e ndúngumú łaydał
210 deer hogu̲fani, fantho̲ xtaj *isu idu bid1xi1ña2 yixe’, bezinha’yixe’ pjant'eje juki jaychu xukwaf łaxihnał, galwixgui, łomfahni
211 mouse ndongu xtuu *tɨyɨ`ʔ lusu bi1zi1ña2 bzinha ngoo tsiya tsujc łabi'fuh, gal.ledón
212 rabbit kwa tucuya leso le3xu1 beshjea kjuaa skáu cunux kaguo, łaga
213 eagle nxu̲ni xtaa ya'a besia zújnú píchawa galháguila (Spanish)
214 spider mexe tachré xindu'va bid1xi1guí3 becozj mexe chawaná pí’tpay galnoho
215 face hmi rihaan nuu jmii lakán windugït laha
216 body ndo'yo, jä'i man yɨkɨ kuñu ladi cuinha nzero mágni alcuerpo (Spanish)
217 navel ts'a̲i stúj *lendu xitɨ ko'o xqui1pi’3 xyicho’ sona tampusni pútsïc ladu
218 finger nsa'ñe̲ ra'a xini bicuini1 ná’2 xben jïjp pofkibe
219 sick
(painful)
da̲thi ran' ku'u huará yizwe’ (sickness) tatatlay ñukoy (pain) łafgwana, łaxtafba
220 needle 'yofni cúú, cúú nuvá yɨkɨ a1gu1xa’3 (Spanish) lixtokon, litsapan aguxa (Spanish) łaguxa (Spanish)
221 clothing 'bitu yatzéj sa'ma, toto lari xha slakát jámuc jely tsamalo (shirt)
222 thunder nga̲ni, ñu̲ni tu'vii taxan chhachj, tin jilínit ániway
223 lightning jwe̲i ta'an tu'vii taxan ra2yu1 (Spanish) gozio' tajín, maglipa lixcaflayh
224 above maxo̲ts'e nuvìì, xtà' nɨnu lu taslmán yucm aldonggáyh
225 below nga̲t'i, madu̲i nicà' *nino vee, nɨnu xa1gue1te’3 zi’rha tutsú pa'tm tiot alhogay
226 to cough hehe achrínj kayu rurú kujunun ojp ditseł'hma
227 to buy ta̲i, po̲hó ránj, xcaj kuaan, sata, ki'in rizí' tamawá -uñ dihnahma
228 to choose jwahni narii, rii, une' nakaxi ri1bí2 lagsagnán -rriujt dihuijf'ehma
229 to grow te achij kua'nu rigaa, ri1nii1si2 chhegorha stagnán ye’cp -tang didojhma
230 to open xoki, zo̲t'e a'núj *nuneʔ kuiña ru1xha1le’3, rie1le’3 wesalhja malakí tïnawatsp -lyejk dexihehma
231 to steal pe 'yaj itùù sakui'na riba'na' akaslanán ñujty dinantsehma
232 to dream 'withä a'nu' xani riní' xcaanda' yelha’ (noun) mansini -my dibayohma
233 to cry zoni ta'vee kuaku ridxi webez tasá dijojhma
234 to yawn hane nacúún ... nej, 'na' nej rihaan ridxaga1 xcaan3da’1 tapixkay (noun) macájïp -sapaw dijaf'ihma ga'wi
235 to cook ja tä, hoku̲hñuni ri'yanj chi'i rugaagui' magchá tïnajcúp dimaq'uehma, dixaf'ihma
236 six ‘rato vatàn' *iyò iñu xhoopa' xope ñanto chaxán anajoyuf agamts'ús
237 seven yoto chìj, ichìj *uxe uxa gad1xe2 gaze yencho tujún ajayuf agaytsí
238 eight hñäto tùnj, itùnj *one una xho1no2 xono' jñincho tsayán anoyuf abaygo
239 nine gu̲to ùùn ɨɨn ga' ga nzincho najatsi apekaf abel-la
240 ten ‘re̲t’a chì', ichì' *uxi uxi chii chi dyecha kau akapaf imbamah

SourcesEdit

  • Bakker, Dik and Ewald Hekking. 2009. "Otomi vocabulary" In: Haspelmath, Martin & Tadmor, Uri (eds.) World Loanword Database. Munich: Max Planck Digital Library, 2158 entries. http://wold.livingsources.org/vocabulary/35
  • Britton, A. Scott. Zapotec-English English-Zapotec (Isthmus) Concise Dictionary. Hippocrene Books, 2003.
  • Castellanos, Javier. Diccionrio Zapoteco-Español Español-Zapoteco — variante xhon. Gobierno del Estado de Oaxaca, Secretaría de Asuntos Indígenas, 2003.
  • Hollenbach, Barbara. 2005. Vocabulario breve del triqui de San Juan Copala. Summer Institute of Linguistics.
  • Josserand, Judy Kathryn. 1983. Mixtec Dialect History. Ph.D. Dissertation, Tulane University.
  • Kim, Yuni. Topics in the Phonology and Morphology of San Francisco del Mar Huave. University of California, Berkeley, 2008.
  • Turner, Paul and Shirley Turner, ed. Chontoal to Spanish-English Spanish to Chontal Dictionary. University of Arizona Press, 1971.
  • Villegas, Manuel Rodríguez ed. AULEX dictionaries (excluding Otomi, Isthmus Zapotec, and Chontal)

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit

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The list may also include: (t) the transcription in Latin characters; (p) the phonetic transcription