Last modified on 24 March 2014, at 04:40

Appendix:Swadesh lists for Uto-Aztecan languages

This is a table of Swadesh lists for Uto-Aztecan languages, including:

  • Nahuatl (Aztecan branch; Central and Southern Mexico)
  • Yaqui (Taracahitic branch; Sonora, Northern Mexico)
  • Hopi (Hopi branch; Northeastern Arizona, United States) — Third Mesa dialect
  • Shoshone (Numic branch; Idaho and Nevada, United States) — mostly Fort Hall dialect (Western Shoshone occasionally used)
  • O'odham, Tohono (Tepiman branch; Southern Arizona, United States) — Saxton orthography used
  • Cahuilla (Takic branch, Cupan sub-branch; Southern California) — Morongo variant
  • Tongva (Gabrielino, Fernandeño) (Takic branch, Seran sub-branch; Southern California)

Note: Additional vocabulary words have been added after word no. 207 ("name"), since the original lengths of Swadesh lists are either 100 or 207 words.

Uto-Aztecan Family Tree.jpg

ListEdit

English Nahuatl Yaqui Hopi Shoshone O'odham Cahuilla Tongva Lang8
1 I ne, no- inepo nu', nuy ne 'a:ñi, -ni né'
2 you
(singular)
te, mo- empo 'um, 'ung enne 'a:pi:, -m 'é'
3 he yehuatl, i- aapo pam, put iden i:da pé'
4 we tehuantin, to- itepo 'itam, 'itamuy nehwe a:cim, -c chém(em)
5 you
(plural)
amehuantin, anmo- eme’e 'uma, 'umuy memme a:pim 'ém(em)
6 they yehuantin, i- bempo puma, pumuy sidee' hegam, i:dam hém
7 this inin junu’u i' u, ma, ika i:da
8 that inon inimi’i pam soka, odei' hegai
9 here nican junumu’u ep saiki ihab 'ípa 'ekwaa, monaa
10 there ompa seenu pep aku abai, ga:nai pénga murooma'
11 who aquin jabesa hak hagaaden heḍai
12 what tleh, tlen jita himu hinni hab
13 where oncan jaksa haqam haga' hebai
14 when ihcuac jakko hisat himbai', -gu hekid
15 how quenin jachinia hin hagai' has i masma
16 not me ini’i qa gai pi kíll xaay
17 all ixquichtzin, moche si’ime sòosoy oyo'go we:s
18 many miectin, miequin ousi hìisa' soonde mu'i
19 some aca, cequinti jita hìisa' ha'i
20 few achitzitzin iliiki hìisa'hoya, tsaa' heeteese
21 other oc seenu ayamwat noondea' aigo, go'ol
22 one ce wepulai suukya' seme' hema súplli pokuu'
23 two ome woi lööyö' wahatehwe go:k wíh wehee'
24 three yei baji pàayo' bahaitee' waik páh paahe'
25 four nahui naiki naalöyö' watsewite gi'ik wíchiw wachaa'
26 five macuilli mamni tsivot manegite hetasp namaqwánang mahaar
27 big huey bwe’u wuko-, wuuyoq'a biaichi' ge'e
28 long piaztic, huihuiyac teebe wuupa gebedaande cew
29 wide patlachiuhqui, cocoyactic bweeka puutsi biawai'gi taḑan
30 thick tilahuacayo, poli ousi maachi pööngala bohondande shawaḑ
31 heavy hetic bette putu betende we:c
32 small tepitzin ilitchi tsay, -hoya deide' cum
33 short tichtic, achihueyac pochilai hìisava, tsaava gebinde' ṣopol
34 narrow tzoltic na’ulai puutsi kapijk
35 thin canahuac, pitztic wakila tsapöngala ganabe komal, aj
36 woman cihuatl jamut wùuti wa'aipe' ogs ñíchill
37 man
(adult male)
oquichtli o’ou taaqa dainape' ceoj náxanish
38 man
(human being)
tlacatl bato’i hopi newe o'odham táxliswet
39 child
(a youth)
conetl, pilli uusi tsay deaipede ali kí'at
40 wife zohuatl jubi nööma gwehe he:g
41 husband cihuahua, namictli kuuna koongya('at) guhape' kun wél'isewill
42 mother nantli maala, ae yu('at) bia', pii je'e -ye -ook
43 father tahtli achai na('at) ape' alid, ogol -na, táata -naak
44 animal yolcatl animaal himu
45 fish michin kuchu paakiw baingwi watopi kíyul kyuur
46 bird tototl wiikit tsiro huchuu' u'uwhig wíkikmal (small bird)
47 dog chichi, itzcuintli chuu’u pòoko sadee' gogs 'áwal wushii'
48 louse atemitl ete atu busi'a a:'ac sá'wal 'aar
49 snake coatl baakot taaho basinu'yu wamaḍ séwet (rattlesnake) showt (rattlesnake)
50 worm ocuili chumkuria aahu watopi
51 tree cuauitl juya himutski sohoo'bi u:s kélawat
52 forest cuauhtla juya -qlö
53 stick
(of wood)
tlacotl buja (branch) koho huupi gakimcul náxat
54 fruit xocotl taakam toko('at) bahi tú'ish
55 seed xinachtli bachia poosi, sivosi paihai kai púchill, qáx'a
56 leaf xiuitl saawa nàapi ha:hag pálat
57 root nelhuayotl naawa nga('at) tatk
58 bark
(of tree)
ehuayotl beea tsìipu'at bo'ambi elidag táchal
59 flower xochitl seewa sihu donziape heosig sé'ish
60 grass zacatontli baso tuusaqa buhipe waṣa'i sámat, símut shaamat
61 rope mecatl wikia wikpangwa demuku wu:ḍ, wu:lṣp píita
62 skin
(of a person)
cuetlaxtli beea puukya poan elkon sával
63 meat
(as in flesh)
nacatl waakas, tekua sikwi duku cu:kug wá'ish hungiiy
64 blood eztli ojbo ungwa beepi e:'eḍ 'éwill
65 bone omitl ota ööqa tsuhni o:'o té'ill
66 fat
(noun)
pochquiotl, chiahuitli awira wihu yuhu gi:gi wíll
67 egg atetl kabam nöhu no'yo nonha wéevu' (from Spanish)
68 horn cuacuahuitl aawam aala aa' a'ag 'áwal
69 tail cuitlapilli bwasia suru('at) gwashi bahi -kwas
70 feather
(rather not down)
ilhuitl boa homasa binoope a'an wíkill
71 hair tzontli choonim höömi bambipe mo'o yúlukal -pwaan
72 head cuaitl, tzontecomatl koba qötö ba'mbi mo'o yúlukal -pwaan
73 ear nacaztli nakam naqvu naingi na:k náqal
74 eye ixtli, ixtelolohtli, ixpolotl puusim poosi('at) buih wuhi púchill -choochon
75 nose yacatl yeka yaqa('at) muu'bi da:k -mul
76 mouth camatl, camalotl teeni mo'a('at) dembai ciñ támal toongen
77 tooth
(rather not molar)
tlantli tamim tama daa'wa ta:tami támal
78 tongue nenepili nini lengi('at) ai'go ñe:ñ nángill
79 fingernail iztitl sutum malatssoki masido' sálul
80 foot icxitl wokim kuku('at) nambai taḍ -'i -neev
81 leg xotl macham hokya huzidoo' kahio -'i
82 knee tetepontli tonom tamö('at) dannape to:n
83 hand maitl mamam maa('at) mo' ma:wua, nowi -mal -maan
84 wing atlapalli, aztli masam masa('at) kasa a'an wákat
85 belly ihtitl to’ona pono sape wo:k té'il
86 guts cuitlaxcoli siiam siihu kohai hihij, eḏawek
87 neck quecholi kutanaa kwàapi('at) doo'yo kuswo, a:d
88 back elcomali, tepotzli joo’o hòota('at) gwahain o: húlul
89 breast elpantli pipim piihu pitsi wipi: pill
90 heart yolotli jiapsi unangwa bihyi i:bdag súnil
91 liver eli, eltapachtli jeemam nuuma bu'i nemaj -ném'a -noom
92 to drink tlai, coni je’e hiiko hiibi- i:'e -pá-
93 to eat cua bwa’e nöösa deka- ko'a -kwá'-
94 to bite tlancua, tetequi ke’e kuuki geka'-, getsia- ke'e -ké'-
95 to suck chichina che’e, chuune tsòotsona pitsi- si'i -chúng-
96 to spit chichi chikwatte töha(k-) dushi- siswua
97 to vomit tetzotla, xochitia bisata naayö'a weto'ai- wihot
98 to blow
(as wind)
tlapatza, tlalpitza pujta, pujte hukba (wind), poovoya (mouth) neai- (wind), buuhki- (mouth) hewed
99 to breathe ihiyotia jiabijte(i) hìikwista suakai- ihbheni
100 to laugh huetzca aache tayati yahnai a'as, hehem-
101 to see tlachia bicha tuwa bui- neith
102 to hear caqui jikkaja navota nananga- (passive) chehg, kah
103 to know
(a fact)
tlamati ju’unea tuwi'yta sua- mahch
104 to think ayequilua, nenemilia ea wuuwa suhanni- chegito
105 to smell
(sense odor)
necui winjuba hova'ikwa gwana hewagith
106 to fear mauhca majairi màmqasi de'ee'ya- ehbith
107 to sleep cochi koche puuwi epuih- kohsig -kúp-
108 to live yoli jiapsa qatu na- thaha
109 to die miqui muuke mooki deyai- muhk
110 to kill mictia me’a, sua niina baika- me'a
111 to fight tlaicalia nassua naayawi nikkumpah cheggia héeñewqa
112 to hunt
(transitive)
ami aamu maqto deegai- wia
113 to hit tlatzotzona, pachilia beba wuvàata, sávikna do- gewi-
114 to cut tlacotona, tlatequi, xima chukta tuku tsika'- hihk
115 to split maxaltic chukta saha(k-) wepahka- tahpan
116 to stab
(or stick)
soa, kuchi’isoa sö`ökwikna doo'na-
117 to scratch
(an itch)
tlatzatzayana wo’oke pélekna huk-
118 to dig ji’ibweje hangwa hoo'da- hiabog -wálin-
119 to swim tlamaneloa, acui bajume momori bahabi- wachchui
120 to fly patlani ne’e puuyàlti -yeeze- tha'a 'á'awet
121 to walk yau weye waynuma mi'a- him
122 to come huala a’abo weye pew -kui', ya'ibiide- ab him
123 to lie
(as on one's side)
colihui, moteca bo’ote, to’ote qaatsi kwapi wo'iwua -qál-
124 to sit mocehui yejte qatu gade-, yegwika- habadk
125 to stand kikte, japte wunu wee'ne- kehk
126 to turn
(change direction)
cuepa kuakta ponìlti go'aih nod
127 to fall
(as in drop)
huetzi, temo kom weche pòosi a'nni- gehsh -púli-
128 to give maca maka maqa utu-, maaga- (feed) mahk -máx-
129 to hold
(in one's hand)
tlatzitzquia jippue, machu’ute, bwisi yawta, ngu'yta tsai'
130 to squeeze tilinia, patzoa piike pootsa (squeeze out) wak'e -cheñúchay-
131 to rub xaxacualoa ruuse ruurukwa, maamapri masu'nai- chelwin
132 to wash tlapaca baksia (tuu)vahoma gozho'hai- wakon
133 to wipe chipahua hööna thagion
134 to pull tilana wike lölökinta -noih wanimun
135 to push tlamatepeua yu’a na'atsqökna -ka'ih nu'i
136 to throw tlatlaza, tlamayahui jimaa tuuva wiitai'i- tha'ichuth
137 to tie ilpia suma soma wul
138 to sew tzoma, iquiti ji’ika tuu'iha tsakeena- shohm
139 to count tlanonotza jina’ikia pòotoyla dezee'- kuint
140 to say iluia, ihtoa tejwa pàngqawu niikwi-, nipshua- ahg
141 to sing cuica bwiika tawta, kuyna denito'ai ne'e
142 to play mahuiltia yeewe naataplawu nui chichwi 'í'ikqa
143 to float ba’apo cha’asisime paayàlti bandoyaa-
144 to flow yeyeco bwite muuna ogwai- med
145 to freeze cehuetzi sapa weche tuusungwti de'asenge-
146 to swell poxauti bajila pösti bai'gwi- toskoni, kopoth
147 sun tona taa’a taawa da'bai tash támit taamet
148 moon metztli meecha muuyaw mea' mashath ménill muwaar
149 star citlalin choki soohu da'ziyumbi hu'u sú'wet shuur, shuyoot
150 water atl ba’am paahu, kuuyi baa', paa wa'ig, shuhthagi pál paara'
151 rain quiahuitl yuku yooyangwl; yokva (verb) ba'emma- juhki wéwnish 'akwaakin
152 river atoyaatl batwe, jakia paayu okaipin akimel wánish paxaayt
153 lake atezcatl bauba’a patupha piapaa, paakate kahchk
154 sea
(as in ocean)
hueyatl, ilhuicaatl baawe paatuwaqatsi kahchk pál múumat moomot
155 salt iztatl oona öönga onapin onmath íngill
156 stone tetl teta owa dembi hothai qáwish toota'
157 sand xalli see’e tuuwa basiwambi o'ohia ngáchish 'uxweet
158 dust teuhtli toochia qö'angw hukumbe kuhbsmath múlish
159 earth
(as in soil)
tlali bwia tutskwa sogope chuthwua témal 'ooxor
160 cloud mixtli naamu 'omaw dowope chewagi wéwnish
161 fog ayahuitl bajewa pamösi baagenaipe kohmhai páyish kotiit
162 sky iluicaltl teeka tokpela dugumbaa'nna thahm kahchim túkvash tokuupar
163 wind
(as in breeze)
ehecatl jeeka huukyangw hewel yá'i 'ahiikan
164 snow cepayahuitl sapam nuva daka'bi gew yúyat yoaat
165 ice cetl sapam patusngwa baahekape gew pál tépawkash
166 smoke poctli bwichia kwiitsingw gwiipe jehniktham mí'at
167 fire tletl taji qööhi, uuwingw gotoo, kuna nahtha kút chaavot
168 ash nextli naposa qötsvi gutusipe matai nísxish
169 to burn
(intransitive)
tlania taya qöyna mehith, mei (intr.) -chút-
170 road ohtli boo’o pöhu bo'ai wohg pít
171 mountain tepetl kawi tuukwi doo'ya tho'ag qáwish xaayy
172 red chichiltic sikili paalà(ngpu) ainga(bite) wegi selek(ish) kwahooxa'
173 green xoxoctic siali mokì(ngpu) buhi(bite) chehthagi tukvashnek(ish) takaape'
174 yellow coztic sawali sikyà(ngpu) oha(pite) oam tesnek(ish) payuuhowe'
175 white iztac tosali qöötsa dosa(bite) toha tevishnek(ish) rawaata'
176 black tliltic, cacatzactli chukuli qömvi duhu(bite) chuk tulek(ish) yomaaxa'
177 night yohualli tukaa tookila dugaani chuhug túkmiyat yaawket
178 day
(daytime)
tonali, ilhuitl taewai taawa, taala dabai'yi tash támit taamet
179 year xihuitl wasuktia yàasangw ahithag
180 warm
(as in weather)
totonqui, yamanqui suka, taata muki yu'wainge- (verb) huhk -roo-
181 cold
(as in weather)
cecec, itztic sebe iyoho'o se-, eitsei hehpi -choo-
182 full tenqui tapunia opo- depaigea- shuhthk, kohwog
183 new yancuic bemela puuhu ege- hemuchkam, wechij
184 old huehue o’ora wuy beaitembe ge'echu
185 good cuali tu’i lolma, tuwy'ita tsaa' ap, kehg 'ácha'e
186 bad amocuali kaa tu’i qa lolma gizhaan(de) pad 'elélema
187 rotten
(as, a log)
palactic, palanqui bikala peekyewpu, aavu jew
188 dirty catzactix jaiti maachi itsehe'e duchaa- uam, bihtagi
189 straight memelahuac lutulai sutskwipu dunaan(de) shelini
190 round ololtic lobolai póngokpu bonzanite sikol
191 sharp
(as a knife)
tenitztic bwaawi qala gemape mu'uk
192 dull
(as a knife)
rumui tsúkuplöti gai gemape
193 smooth xipetztli, alactic chitabetalai suphìngpu pahen thahpk
194 wet ciahuac, paltic ba’ari mowa'iwta baagwichipe wadag, wa'u
195 dry
(adjective)
huac wakia laaki basakwai- (verb) gaki
196 right
(correct)
neli, melahuac tua sú'anta debiizhi ap
197 near nahuac kaa mekka -qlaq mia
198 far huehca mekka haq maanankwah mehkotham
199 right
(side)
yeccapan batam putve(q) apko pwaar
200 left
(side)
opochtli mikko’im suyvaqw kwii ohgig kaano'
201 at -pan -chi ep ga ab, am pa, -nga
202 in -ihtic -po -peq, -ve gupa eda, -ko
203 with
(accompanying)
ica naabujtia akw, -mum ma'i wehm pish
204 and iuan into -niqw deasen kch, ku-
205 if tla -ko -kur -p, sha
206 because ica bwe’ituk taq ade'uka hekaj
207 name tocaitl team tungwni nanihai chehgig téwal
208 house calli kari kiihu gahnin kih kísh kiiy
209 wall tepantli sapti tùupela tepana kolhaidag kíwnish
210 deer mazatl maaso sowi'yngwa deheya' sihki súkat shukaat
211 mouse quimichin tori pöösa bo'naih nahagio pákash pa'aash
212 rabbit tochtli taabu taavo daa'bu tohbi sú'ish, távut
213 eagle cuauhtli suluma kwaahu gwi'yaa' ba'ag 'áswet 'ashaawut
214 spider tocatl jubaje kookyangw awaso'atsi tokithhud xwálxwal wereechey
215 face xayacatl pujba taywa('at) kopai mo'o púchill
216 body tlactli takaa toko duku hon táxawill -taatax
217 navel xictli siiku sipna siigu hik -'ul
218 finger mapilli pusiam malatsi maseweeki' -ma tú'i
219 sick
(painful)
cocoyac ko’okoe tuutuya neetsiigwa- mumki-
220 needle huitzmallotl ji’ikiam mosta wii'yu ho'ibad
221 clothing quemitl, tilmatli tajo’ori yuwsi oyo'de eniga xéllal
222 thunder tlatlatziniliztli yuku jimaari úmuki dowoyagaide kopki táwval
223 lightning onotlapetlan yuku be’oktia talwìipiki aingagwikwizhapunde wepgih, wuihun
224 above aco bepa -tsva ba'a thahm
225 below tlani betuku -tpiq duka wecho
226 to cough tlatlaxtli tase 'öhö ohni- i'ihog
227 to buy tlacohua jinu tu'i demee- nolawt, sha'awai
228 to choose pepena yeu pua namorta gawulkath
229 to grow cueponi, mozcalti yo’otu hòyta, wungwa maseah- ge'etha
230 to open tlapoa etapo höta tsatefa- kuhpi'ok, jeg (intr.) -'áqi-, -hákush-
231 to steal tlanahuaya, ichtequi etbwa sokopta, uu'uyna dedeka- ehs-
232 to dream temiqui tenku tuumoklawu nabushi'a'i chehchk
233 to cry choca bwaana pakmumuya yaa'gai- shoak, shosha
234 to yawn cochcamachaloliztli wa’awa’akte havìitàangwti ekkehsah chinniak
235 to cook tlacualchihualia bwasa noovata degumahanni- baha
236 six chicuace busani navay naafaite chuhthp qunsúplli' pavaahe'
237 seven chicome wobusani tsange' daatsewiti wewa'ak qunwíh wachaa' kavyaa'
238 eight chicuei wojnaiki nanal nawiwatsewitse gigi'ik qunpáh weheesh wachaa'
239 nine chiconahui batani pept seemonowemihyande humukt qunwíchiw mahaar kavyaa'
240 ten matlac wojmamni pakwt seemoten west-mahm nemichúmi weheesh mahaar

SourcesEdit

  • Fernández, Zarina Estrada. 2009. "Yaqui vocabulary" In: Haspelmath, Martin & Tadmor, Uri (eds.) World Loanword Database. Munich: Max Planck Digital Library, 1384 entries. http://wold.livingsources.org/vocabulary/32
  • Yoeme-English English-Yoeme: with a comprehensive grammar of Yoeme language. David Leedom Shaul, Felipe S. Molina. Hippocrene Books, 1999. (Yoeme is an alternate name for Yaqui.)
  • Hopi Dictionary: Hopìikwa Lavàytutuveni. University of Arizona Press: 1998.
  • Tohono O'odham/Pima to English, English to Tohono O'odham/Pima Dictionary. Dean Saxton, Lucille Saxton, et al. University of Arizona Press: 1998.
  • Cahuilla Dictionary. Hansjakob Seiler, Kojiro Hioki. Malki-Ballena Press: June 1, 1979.
  • Munro, Pamela, et al. Yaara' Shiraaw'ax 'Eyooshiraaw'a. Now You're Speaking Our Language: Gabrielino/Tongva/Fernandeño. Lulu.com: 2008.
  • Shoshoni Online Dictionary

External linksEdit

Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Uto-Aztecan

Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Antillean Creole – Arabic (standard) (p), Egyptian Arabic (p), Palestinian Arabic (p), Tunisian Arabic (t) – Armenian (t,p) – Aromanian – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Breton – Bulgarian (t) – Burmese (t,p) – Catalan – Chechen – Chinese: Cantonese, Gan (p), Mandarin (t,p), Min Nan (Amoy) (p), Old Chinese (p) – Czech – Danish – Dutch (p) – Egyptian (Middle)  – Esperanto (p) – Estonian – Finnish – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – French (p) – Frisian (West) – Friulian – Georgian (t,p) – German (p) – Greek (modern) (p), Greek (ancient) – Guaraní – Haida – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hawaiian – Hindi (t) – Hittite – Hmong (White) (p) – Hungarian – Icelandic – Indonesian – Interlingue – Irish (p) – Istro-Romanian – Italian (p) – Japanese (t) – Kashubian – Khmer (p) – Korean (t) – Kurdish – Latin – Latvian – Lingala – Lingua Franca Nova – Lithuanian – Luwian – Macedonian (t) – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian (t) – Old Portuguese (p) – Ossetian (p) – Polish (p) – Portuguese (p) – Proto-Indo-European – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian (p) – Sanskrit (t) – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Sinhalese – Slovenian – Spanish (p) – Sranan – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tajik (t) – Tahitian – Thai (t) – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Zulu

Language families and family branches

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian – Altaic – Araucanian – Austro-Asiatic – Australian – Austronesian – Baltic – Baltic-Finnic – Bantu – Celtic – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Frisian – Germanic – Hokan – Iberian – Indo-Aryan – Indo-Iranian – Indo-Iranian (extended) – Italian – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan – Slavic – Siouan – Tai–Kadai – Tibeto-Burman – Tupi–Guarani – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

The list may also include: (t) the transcription in Latin characters; (p) the phonetic transcription