- 0 : no
- 1 : pa
- 2 : re
- 3 : ci
- 4 : vo
- 5 : mu
- 6 : xa
- 7 : ze
- 8 : bi
- 9 : so
Gismu acting as either selbri or sumti
- selbri : predicate
- sumti : argument
- bridi : predication (predicate + argument(s))
- cmavo : structural word
- brivla : content word
- morphologically there are three kinds of these: gismu, lujvo, and fu'ivla.
- functionally, these act in either of two ways: as selbri or as sumti (this latter case only when modified by certain gadri).
- tanru : a compound brivla
- lujvo : a "fossilized" tanru (made up of rafsi)
- fu'ivla : a word borrowed from another language, prepended with a semantic disambiguation tag
- cmene : a "name", i.e., proper noun
- gismu : a root (content) word
- rafsi : an abbreviated form of a gismu (useful especially for forming lujvo)
- place structure (of a selbri) : the selbri's definition (in terms of parameters x1, x2, etc.); Lojban's version of case frame.
- Place structure inheritance: e.g., tumxra inherits its place structure from its component pixra.
- observative : a bridi without an x1 sumti (or is it just a bridi without any sumti?)
- gadri : articles
- conversion : swapping of a selbri's first sumti with another one of that selbri's sumti.
- performed by modifying a selbri with a cmavo of selma'o SE.
- sumti tcita : preposition (for an extra, "labeled sumti", place in a selbri's place structure); the preposition is the "modal" form of some gismu which determines the preposition's meaning. (example: fi'e)
- internal sumti : ≈ relative
- begun with be.
- MEX : mathematical expression
- abstraction : a kind of subordinate clause
- abstractor : transforms a selbri (right before it becomes sumtified)
- rough analogies: Laplace transform, wavelet transform (DHWT, ...), ...
- descriptor : a gadri
- description : a noun phrase
- What part of speech are the compound numbers?
- What is a selma'o exactly? (en.wikt's definition is mystifying)
Tanru vs. lujvo
- tanru : two (or more) brivla written separately but acting as a single sumti or a single selbri
- lujvo : two (or more?) rafsi fused into a single brivla
- Would ritygu'e be a lujvo or a cmene (or both)?
- If it is a lujvo, then what would be its place structure (cmene don't have place structure): would x2 only be fillable with brito or could any arbitrary subset of brito also do (because if it is fixed to brito then that would obviate the need for x2).
- Perhaps more to the point, wouldn't the x1 sumti of ritygu'e have to be ritygu'e itself? Also, in ritygu'e, ritygu'e is modified with la, which should modify cmene, so it looks like ritygu'e should be classified as cmene even though it is morphologically more of a lujvo (e.g., it does not end in consonant and full stop like cmene usually do, but ends with vowel, rather anomalously): that is, when form (morphology) clashes with function (part of speech), go with the function; as in the adage «form follows function».
- See http://jbovlaste.lojban.org/dict/ritygu%27e : according to its definition, sumti x2 and those following it are obviated, x1 remains. Someone in ritygu'e could spread the arms and say: "Ti ritygu'e" and it would make sense, especially if addressing visitors.
- http://email@example.com/msg05849.html (tijlan.) recommends the label "Lujvo cmene": ritygu'e would be (strictly speaking) a lujvo which becomes a cmene only when modified with la, but then again, cmene are only cmene when modified with la (otherwise they are just cmevla, but how would a non-cmene cmevla actually function in a Lojban sentence?). Anyway, since there are already POS headers such as "Proper noun" and "Compound cmavo" being used, then there could be a "Lujvo cmene" POS header and category as well...
- ri'a is a sumti tcita so should that mean that it should act more like a preposition ("because of") rather than a conjunction ("because")?
- If acting (apparently) as conjunction it is probably followed immediately by gadri + abstractor, such as lenu, so the actual conjunction would be, say, ri'alenu, rather than just ri'a.
- because = ki'ulenu/ri'alenu/&c./ki'ulonu/ri'alonu/&c.; because of = ki'u/ri'a/&c.
The following POS headers are currently admissible:
- Use this also for compound cmavo, though the category for these would be Category:Lojban compound cmavo instead of Category:Lojban cmavo.
- This is a closed category, and WT already appears to have entries for all of Lojban's gismu (1342 of them).
- Proper noun
- The first three are closed categories: they are "hardwired" into the Lojban baseline. Any such words should be automatically includable (without second thought) in WT, since they are, by definition (not to say by LLG's fiat), part of Lojban.
- The last two are open categories: new Lojban words in these categories could be coined ad hoc, so think twice and proceed with caution before adding any such terms to WT as such words might have trouble meeting the requirements of CFI.
Online Resources & References
- Lojban for Beginners by Robin Turner & Nick Nicholas
- cmavo/selma'o list (ordered by selma'o) po la lojbangirz.
- An asterisk suffixed to a selma'o's name means that the cmavo is compound.
Online Parser/Translator (jboski)
Offline Parser (runs on Terminal)
How to set up and run:
- Official Parser
- move uncompressed folder to Applications.
- start Terminal and cd on over to Applications/parser-3.0.00 folder.
- type cc -o parser *.c and press Enter.
- Go to the Applications/parser-3.0.00 folder through Finder.
- Double click on parser.
- At the >>> prompt, type in a Lojban sentence to be parsed and press Enter.
- Examine the result, then repeat.
- When/if done, close the Terminal window.
- fu lu le cmalu noltru li'u pu fanva fa la xorxes.
Last modified on 24 April 2012, at 04:14↑Jump back a section
Lojban formal grammar
- http://dag.github.com/cll/21/1/ (Lojban YACC grammar on github)
- http://jscc.jmksf.com/ (JS/CC)
- http://jscc.jmksf.com/jscc/jscc.html (JS/CC Web Environment)
- How to use: remove comments from the Lojban YACC grammar; replace %% with ##; add definitions above the ## for terminals and non-terminals (similarly to the "non-associative" part of the example); make sure to include
- http://jscc.jmksf.com/jscc/jscc.html (JS/CC Web Environment)
! ' |\t' ;
- at the top: it defines whitespace! Do not use any whitespace in any regexes (in the lex part) unless they are actually part of the Lojban terms. Replace the error 's in the "gaps" with nothing (∅, ε, i.e., whitespace). Paste code into the big text box in the middle, click on Build (the window blows up widthwise), then click on Run. That should implement Step 6 of the parser. (Lexical tokens, if any, should be added manually, or through some pre-parsing code.). A neat parse tree should be generated on the bottom right corner as well as action and goto tables for the LALR(1) parser (consisting of 894 states!) on the under-middle left side.