Last modified on 24 July 2014, at 14:17


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The lemma is the main entry for forms of a word, and should have the main discussion and be linked to. For example, walk is the lemma of an English verb (the “bare infinitive” – “to walk” without the “to”), while walked is a non-lemma form.

Verb lemma forms for various languagesEdit

  • Albanian: first-person singular present indicative verb form.
  • Ancient Greek: present active indicative first singular
  • Arabic: third person masculine singular perfective (some dictionaries use the 3rd masculine singular imperfective)
  • Armenian: infinitive
  • Belarusian: the base form is the imperfective infinitive, but the perfective infinitive, though secondary, gets its own page as well
  • Bulgarian: present simple-tense first-person singular
  • Catalan: infinitive
  • Cherokee: root minus prefixes, suffixes, or anything else, for example, -e-, go.
  • Chinese: not inflected: verbs have only one form
  • Czech: infinitive
  • Finnish: infinitive
  • French: infinitive
  • Galician: infinitive (impersonal)
  • German: infinitive
  • Greek: first person singular of the present tense and indicative mood
  • Haitian Creole: verbs are uninflected
  • Hebrew: third-person masculine singular past
  • Hindi: infinitive, which ends in -nā (ना)
  • Hungarian: third-person singular of the indefinite present
  • Ido: present infinitive
  • Italian: infinitive
  • Japanese: the non-past tense (verbs have no person, gender, or number)
    This is the conclusive form, known in Japanese as 終止形; also colloquially known as dictionary form (辞書形) by some.
    Anyway, the canonical form will be the 終止形 (shūshi-kei) which is unique to each verb. Using w:Japanese grammar terminology, it is the terminal form.
    Japanese verbs are often quite different from the humble to neutral to exalted, honorific infinitives, the plain and the polite. Humble form of to eat is itadaku, neutral is taberu, exalted is meshiagaru, each with a different conjugation. Then there are the polite forms, such as tabemasu.
  • Khmer: not inflected: verbs have only one form
  • Korean: infinitive (i.e. ending in 다 -da)
    The Korean infinitive is generally (by Martin &c.) considered to be the 하여 (hayeo), 와 (wa), etc. form -- what is sometimes called the "polite stem". IMX the dictionary form is usually just called the "dictionary form", though 기본형 (gibonhyeong "basic form") also has some currency.
  • Lao: not inflected (only one form)
  • Latin: first-person singular present active indicative (first principal part)
  • Limburgish: infinitive
  • Lingala: verb stem
  • Lithuanian: infinitive, which always ends in -ti.
  • Macedonian: third-person singular simple present (some dictionaries use the 1st person like Bulgarian)
  • Middle Armenian: infinitive
  • Navajo: third-person singular present
  • Ojibwe: third-person singular present
  • Old Armenian: first-person singular present indicative
  • Old English: infinitive
  • Old French: infinitive
  • Persian: infinitive (the form that ends in ـَن -an)
  • Portuguese: infinitive (impersonal)
  • Quechua: third-person singular present
  • Romanian: infinitive
  • Russian: the base form is the imperfective infinitive, but the perfective infinitive, though secondary, gets its own page as well
  • Sioux: third-person singular present
  • Spanish: infinitive
  • Swahili: this has been severely depressed here and the situation is unlikely to change anytime soon, but if we were adding Swahili, normally the indicative root form of the verb is used...e.g., -peleki (to send).
  • Swedish: active infinitive
  • Thai: not inflected: verbs have only one form
  • Turkish: infinitive (some dictionaries use the stem instead: koş- rather than koşmak)
    Turkish infinitives end in -mek and -mak.
  • Ukrainian: the base form is the imperfective infinitive, but the perfective infinitive, though secondary, gets its own page as well
  • Urdu: infinitive, which ends in -nā (نا)
  • Vietnamese: not inflected: verbs have only one form
  • Wauja: third-person singular present
  • West Frisian: infinitive
  • Yup'ik: third-person singular present