Last modified on 10 August 2014, at 15:26

akmens

LatvianEdit

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 Akmens on Latvian Wikipedia

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Akmens

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Baltic *akmens, from earlier *aḱmen-, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂éḱ-mō, *h₂éḱ-h₂-men (whence also asmens, originally a parallel form to akmens, created by a different development of *ḱ, perhaps due to Proto-Indo-European dialectal differences), from the stem *aḱ-, *h₂éḱ- (sharp, pointy, angular; stone) with an extra element -men. Cognates include Lithuanian akmuõ, genitive akmeñs, Sudovian akmi, Hittite aku (sharp stone), Sanskrit अश्मन् (aśman, stone, rock, sky), Avestan asman (asman, stone, sky), Ancient Greek ἄκμων ( ákmōn, anvil), ἀκμή (akmḗ, spike, edge, blade); with reduction (zero grade) of the stem (*h₂éḱ-h₂-men > Proto-Slavic *kamen ~ *kamy “stone”), also Belarusian, Russian камень (kámen'), Ukrainian камінь (kámin'), Bulgarian камен (kámen), Czech kámen, Polish kamień.[1]

NounEdit

akmens m (2nd declension, irregular nominative, genitive)

  1. stone, rock (non-metallic solid mineral; a piece of such mineral)
    ass, šķautņaina akmens — sharp, angular stone
    akmens šķembas — crushed stone
    akmens slabs, plāksnestone pillar, plate
    akmens klons, sienas, bruģisstone floor, walls, pavement
    mest akmeni — to throw a stone
    lauzt akmeņus — to break stones, rocks
    smags ka akmens — heavy as a rock
    ciets ka akmens — hard as a rock
    krīt ka akmens — to fall like a rock
    akmens laikmets — the stone age (in prehistory)
  2. (in the genitive, used as adjective) hard; indifferent, unfeeling, unrelenting, unshakable
    akmens sirds — heart of stone
    gleznotājs ar nekustīgu akmens seju bija atlaidies atzveltnes krēslā — the painter with the immobile, stone face had let himself down on the armchair
  3. precious stone, also an imitation of a precious stone
    rets akmens — rare (gem)stone
    īsti akmeņi — real, genuine (gem)stone
    gredzens ar akmeni — ring with a (precious) stone
    pulkstenis ar piecpadsmit akmeņiem — a clock with fifteen gems
  4. (medicine, anatomy) stone, calculus (a hard, usually saline, formation in the body)
    žults akmeņi — gall stones
    zobu akmens, zobakmens — tartar (lit. teeth stone)
    nieru akmeņi veidojas nieru bļodiņās — kidney stones are formed in the renal pelvis
  5. residue left in certain objects
    katla akmens — boiler stone (= mineral deposits on boiler walls resulting from boiling water)

DeclensionEdit

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ “akmens” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7