- having feet which are flat
- Bears are flat-footed animals.
- ( of humans) having the specific physical condition of flat feet
- (idiomatic) unprepared to act
- They caught us flat-footed.
- Holding firmly and maintaining a decision; to standing on one's ground.
- 1892 Frank Millet: "I write in this way to urge you to be explicit and flat-footed in your wishes." Quoted in: 2003 Erik Larson, The Devil in the White City: Murder, Magic, and Madness at the Fair that Changed America, ISBN 0609608444, page 177.
having physical condition "flat feet"
holding firmly to a decision