Last modified on 1 July 2014, at 11:29

gudrs

LatvianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From the same stem as the verb gūt (to gain, to obain) (q.v.). From a parallel form gust (< *gud-ti; compare Lithuanian gùsti (to get accustomed; to teach oneself), present tense gundù) came *gudras, from which gudrs (the u-stem form of the Lithuanian cognate is apparently secondary). The semantic evolution of this word was probably: “(something) caught, grabbed” > “one who by catching got used to, taught himself something” (at first applied to dogs and other animals) > “intelligent,” or then maybe: “one who catches, grabs” > “resourceful” > “smart, intelligent.” (Note that a 17th-cendury dictionary mentions modrs (alert, vigilant) as a synonym of gudrs.) Cognates include Lithuanian gudrùs (intelligent, resourceful), dialectal gùdras.[1]

PronunciationEdit

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AdjectiveEdit

gudrs (def. gudrais, comp. gudrāks, sup. visgudrākais; adv. gudri)

  1. intelligent, wise (having extensive knowledge, well-developed thinking, rich experience)
    gudrs cilvēks, ārstsintelligent person, doctor
    bataljona komandieris - lielisks vīrs, un gudrs: lai kādu jautājumu viņam uzprasi, visu atbildēs, izlasījis veselu bibliotēku — the battalion commander: a great man, and intelligent: whatever question you asked him, he answered it, he has read a whole library
    vienkāršais cilvēks, visu darbu darītājs, pazīst dabas norises un parādības, darba procesus, pazīst cilvēkus, viņu dzīves daudzveidīgos sakarus un attiecības; tāds cilvēks ir gudrs — a simple person, who does all the work, knows natural processes and phenomena, (knows) work, knows people, their lives' multifaceted connections and relations; such a person is wise
  2. intelligent, wise (expressing such qualities)
    gudrs skatienswise, intelligent look
    gudras aciswise eyes
    gudra sejaintelligent face
    kad viņš noņem cepuri, tad var redzēt, ka piere viņam augsta un gudra — when he took his hat off, then we could see that his forehead is high and wise
  3. smart, clever (one who quickly understands, notices, remembers; astute)
    gudrs skolēns, māceklisclever student, apprentice
    māmiņa bija lepna par mums, stāstīja, cik mēs nopietni, gudri un saprātīgi bērni — mom was proud of us, he told (everybody) how we were serious, clever, intelligent children
  4. (of animals) smart, clever (well trained; perceptive)
    gudrs suns, zirgsclever dog, horse
    gudri dzīvnieki instinktīvi jūt negaisus cilvēku attiecībāsclever animals instinctively feel a thunderstorm in human relations (when one is happening)
    gudrais pelēcis laipoja uzmanīgi, it kā zinādams, kas viņam šodien vedams — the smart gray (horse) maneuvered carefully, as if knowing who he would be taking today
  5. (figuratively, of objects) smart, intelligent
    gudrās mašīnas palīdz radīt celtnes, jūras un Visuma kuģus — the intelligent machines help creat buildings, ships, and spaceships
  6. (of mental activities) intelligent, clever, wise (which exemplifies the use of intelligence, wisdom)
    gudra domaintelligent, wise thought
    gudrs lēmumswise decision
    guddra mīlestībawise love
    humānismam jābūt gudram — humanism must be wise
  7. (of activities and their products) intelligent, wise (rich in thoughts, ideas, insights)}
    gudra grāmata, runa, lekcijaintelligent book, talk, lecture
    gudra tautas paruna: “darbs dara meistaru” — a wise folk saying: “work makes the master”
  8. smart, resourceful, cunning (who quickly orients himself in many different circumstances, who can use the circumstances to his favor)
    Pēteris - tas bija gudrs: izmācījās par drēbnieku un apprecēja bagātu sievu — Pēteris, that was a smart one: he studied to be a tailor and then married a rich wife
  9. wise, prudent
    tu biji gudra, mīļā dvēsele, tu gribēji sevi taupīt un sargāt — you were wise, dear soul, you wanted to save and protect yourself
    bet arī līdzi ņemt zēnu nebija necik gudri, jo mēs varbūt jau pēc dažām stundām dosimies kaujā — but also to take the boy along was not at all wise, because we may have already been a few hours in the battle (zone)

DeclensionEdit

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ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ “gudrs” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (Rīga: AVOTS) ISBN: 9984-700-12-7.