Last modified on 2 September 2014, at 19:38

jūs

See also: jus

LatvianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Baltic *yu-, from Proto-Indo-European *yu- (you (pl.)). The non-nominative forms were re-formed, following the paradigm of u-stems: a new accusative *júns > jūs, a new genitive *jūsōn > jūsu (cf. Old Prussian iouson), and a new dative *jūmus > *jumus > jums. Cognates include Lithuanian jūs, Old Prussian ioūs, iaūs, Gothic 𐌾𐌿𐍃 (jus), Sanskrit यूयम् (yūyam) (< *yūš-).[1]

PronunciationEdit

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PronounEdit

jūs

  1. you; accusative plural form of jūs

jūs (personal, 2nd person plural)

  1. you; second-person pronoun, referring to the addressee and other people
    kur jūs, zēni, bijāt? — where, boys, were you?
    steidzieties, jūs jau gaida! — hurry up, they are already waiting for you!
    kurš no jums ir vecāks: Birkenbaums, Gulbis vai Jānis? — which of you is the oldest: Birkenbaums, Gulbis, or Jānis?
    esat, Birutiņ, un tu, Ansi... esat mani bērni, tikai es neesmu jūsu īstais tēvs — you are, Birutiņa, and you, Ansis... you
  2. (formal) you; second-person pronoun, referring to the adressee, singular or plural, to show polite respect; often capitalized
    būt uz jūs (ar kādu), uzrunāt (kādu) ar jūs — to be on jūs (with someone), to address (someone) with, as jūs
    (Ilga:) āgrāk jūs tā nerunājāt... (Marts:) jūs toreiz bijāt maza meitene un nekā nesapratāt — (Ilga:) you, sir, didn't talk like that before... (Marts:) you, madam, were then a small girl and didn't understand anyhting
    pateicos par Jūsu palīdzību — I thank (you) for your help
    Kalniņa kungs, vai Jums šis jautājums ir skaidrs? — Mr Kalniņš, is this question clear to you?

DeclensionEdit

Related termsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ “jūs” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7

LithuanianEdit

PronounEdit

jūs

  1. (second-person singular, formal) you
  2. (second-person plural) you

DeclensionEdit


Old PrussianEdit

PronounEdit

jūs

  1. you, the second person plural pronoun