Last modified on 13 September 2014, at 01:52
See also: Rast

GermanEdit

Etymology 1Edit

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

rast

  1. Second-person singular present of rasen.
  2. Third-person singular present of rasen.
  3. Second-person plural present of rasen.
  4. Imperative plural of rasen.

Etymology 2Edit

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

rast

  1. Imperative singular of rasten.
  2. (colloquial)First-person singular present of rasten.

LatvianEdit

EtymologyEdit

This word is the reflex of two different Proto-Indo-European forms: *wer-d-, *wr-ed- (to bend, to sway) and *werdʰ-, *wr-edʰ-, *h₂erHdʰ- (to grow; high), both from the stem *wer- (to bend, to turn). Both forms yielded Proto-Baltic *red-, *rad-, from which *rad-ti > *rasti > rast. The present tense form was derived with an extra n: *randuo > *ruodu > rodu; cf. dialectal variants ronu, romu. From the meaning “to bend, to sway” came “to raise, to obtain (by bending down to get it)” > “to obtain, to get, to find.” From the meaning “to grow” came not only the meanings of the Lithuanian reflexive form, but also those of Latvian related forms like raža (harvest), rasma (fecundity), radīt (to create), radi (relatives) and the 18th-century adjective rastīgs (fertile, successful). This semantic diversity also explains the divergent meanings of the derived prefixed verbs (atrast (to find; to lose a habit, a skill), pierast (to get used), etc.). Cognates include Lithuanian ràsti (to find, to obain by searching; to notice; to determine, to establish; to happen, to be), reflexive ràstis (to grow quickly, strongly; to give birth; to rise, to get up; to become; to happen; to come, to arrive; to get somewhere); from *werd- (to bend, to sway), also Gothic 𐍅𐍂𐌰𐍄𐍉 (wratō, to go, to travel), Icelandic rata (to travel, to find one's way), Middle High German razzeln (to turn); from *werdʰ (to grow), Old Church Slavonic расти (rasti, to grow), Russian расти (rasti), Polish rość, Sanskrit वर्धति (várdhati), वृधति (vr̥dháti, to grow, to increase), Ancient Greek ὀρθός (orthós, straight, upright) (and perhaps also, from a possible variant form *Herdʰ, *Hredʰ-, Latin arduus (lofty, high), arbor (tree)).[1]

However, there is no trace of the *w in all of Balto-Slavic, which, even if explainable through regular loss in word-initial *wr- (clear evidence for a svarabhakti variant is lacking, though, so even *wred(h)- is only conjecture and an ultimately unjustified reconstruction), should be evident in some related form, at least zero grades. Therefore, it is likely that the forms with *w are unrelated. The Lexikon der Indogermanischen Verben derives Balto-Slavic *rad- simply from a Proto-Indo-European verbal root *redh- "appear, arise".

PronunciationEdit

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VerbEdit

rast tr., 1st conj., pres. rodu, rodi, rod, past radu

  1. to find (to cause by searching that something (desirable, necessary) be present, in use, or in one's possession)
    rast jaunu dzimteni — to find a new homeland
    nerast nekur mieru — to not find peace anywhere
    rast kopīgu valodu — to find a common language (= to communicate)
    mīļa, mīļa tēva sēta, kur mīļaku vietu rast! — dear, dear father's (= home) ranch, where to find a favorite place!
  2. to find (to discover via research)
    institūta laboratorijās rastas jaunas sveķu izmantošanas iespējas — in the laboratories of the institute new possibilities of use for resin (were) found
  3. to find (to choose, e.g., the right word, in one's thoughts)
    kā lai vārdus rod? — how does one find the (right) words?
  4. to find, to receive (e.g., help, understanding, from others)
    kur rast atbalstu? draugos? — where to find support? with (lit. in) friends?
    viņš rod ierosmi dabā — he finds inspiration in nature
    viņa gribētu rast apstiprinājumu — she would like to find approval
  5. to find, to start (e.g., a state, a situation, a relationship)
    rast draudzību — to find friendship
    komponista sirsnība un vienkāršība palīdzēja rast ciešu kontaktu ar publiku — the composer's sincerity and simplicity helped him find, achieve chose contact with the audience
  6. to find (to be such that a certain mental state is caused)
    rast spēkus, mierinājumu, prieku — to find strength, comfort, joy
    rast prieku darbā — to find joy in work
    cik sevi vēros, vairāk sāpes radu — the more I observe myself, the more I find pain
  7. (in the past active participle form radis) accustomed, used to
    viņš nebija radis daudz domāt, tāpēc jutās noguris — he wasn't used to thinking a lot, so he felt tired
    meitene pie grūta darba nav radusi — the girl wasn't used to hard work
  8. (rare, in the past passive participle form rasts) usual, well-known
    uz ciemu īstenībā ved ne viens vien ceļš, bet tā ir rasts un iegājies, ka tos citus vairs neizmanto — in fact more than one road leads to the village, but it is well known tradition that the others are no longer used

ConjugationEdit

Derived termsEdit

prefixed verbs:
other derived terms:

Related termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ “rast” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7

Serbo-CroatianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From rȃsti (to grow)

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

rȃst m (Cyrillic spelling ра̑ст)

  1. (uncountable) growth
  2. (uncountable) height

DeclensionEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • rast” in Hrvatski jezični portal

SloveneEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

rást f (genitive rastí, uncountable)

  1. growth

DeclensionEdit

Related termsEdit


SwedishEdit

NounEdit

rast c

  1. a break (rest or pause, usually from work)

DeclensionEdit

Related termsEdit