- (after a vowel or a voiced consonant other than a sibilant) enPR: z, IPA(key): /zˈz/
- (after /p/, /t/, /k/, /f/, or /θ/) enPR: s, IPA(key): /sɪz/
- (after other consonants)
- Plural possessive marker, indicating than an object belongs to the plural noun phrase bearing the marker.
- Chris’s heart leapt when she saw the expressions on her teachers’ faces. (the teacher + s’)
- The countesses’ husbands were generally quite lavish. (countess + s’)
- Singular possessive marker, used optionally with words whose singular form ends in -s.
2014 August 29, Minyvonne Burke, “Robin Williams Death: Actor’s Ghost Haunting Home He Died In, Playing Practical Jokes?”, HNGN Headlines & Global News:
- Robin Williams' ghost has apparently stuck around and is haunting the California home the actor died in.
Traditionally, the possessives of classical and Biblical names ending in s, such as Archimedes and Jesus, are written without a final “s”.
This can lead to confusion, especially in print, since in this case, s’ it is not indicating a plural noun.
- Archimedes’ Principle
- Jesus’ disciples
For current usage, the above rule (for example, with regard to the Spanish given name Jesus) does not need to be applied as it is not occurring in a Biblical or classical context. However, it is perfectly acceptable to use s' nevertheless.
- This is Jesus Ramirez, and this is Jesus’s wife.
Please see also Usage notes for ’s for further clarification.
- Contraction of es.
- elision of si “if” before il or ils
- S’il vous plaît. - Please. or Here you are.
- Je ne sais pas s’ils viendront demain. - I don’t know if they will come tomorrow.
s’ (third person)
- elision of se before a word beginning with a vowel.
- Il s’habille. - He’s dressing (himself).
- Il s’aime. - He loves himself.
- Ils s’aiment. - They love themselves. or They love each other.
- (informal) elision of se before a word beginning with a consonant.
- Y s’bouge le cul ou quoi? - Is he movin’ his ass or what?
- "s'" in le Trésor de la langue française informatisé (The Digitized Treasury of the French Language).