Last modified on 14 September 2014, at 23:47

salds

LatvianEdit

EtymologyEdit

Derived from a former verb *salt (to be(come) sweet) (compare Lithuanian sálti), which disappeared, possibly because of homophony with salt (to be(come) cold). It has the same stem as sāls (salt) (q.v.), with an extra d also found in other cognates. The meaning change of the verb salt was probably from “(being) salty, salted” to “having pleasant flavor, tasty” and then to “(being) sweetened, sweet.” Cognates include Lithuanian saldùs, Proto-Slavic *soldь (Old Church Slavonic сладъкъ (sladŭkŭ), Russian сла́дкий (sládkij)), German Salz, Gothic 𐍃𐌰𐌻𐍄 (salt) < *sald- (salt), Latin sallere (to salt) < *saldere, Old Armenian աղտ (ałt).[1]

PronunciationEdit

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AdjectiveEdit

salds (def. saldais, comp. saldāks, sup. vissaldākais; adv. saldi)

  1. sweet (having the flavor typical of, e.g., sugar, or honey)
    salds auglissweet fruit
    salda sulasweet juice
    salda garšasweet taste
    salds kā medussweet as honey
    mēs arvien dzērām tik saldu kafiju, ka cukurs vēl palika neizkusis krūzītes dibenā — we always drank coffee so sweet, the sugar remained undissolved at the bottom of the cup
  2. sweet (containing sugar, or some similar substance)
    saldās mandelessweet almonds
    saldais krējumssweet cream
    salds pienssweet, fresh milk
    saldais vīnssweet wine
    saldais kartupelissweet potato
    saldās mērces pasniedz pie bieziem ķīseļiem, pudiņiem, kēksiem, cepumiemsweet sauces are served with thick jelly, puddings, cookies and biscuits
  3. sweet (having the smell typical of, e.g., phlox flowers)
    salds ziedu aromātssweet floral fragrance
    vēsmoja salda ziedu smarža — a sweet flower smell was wafting (around)
    viņa pienāca pie kabībes, apdvesdama Sproģi ar skurbinoši saldu parfīmu — she came to the cabin, surrounding Sproģis with an inebriatingly sweet perfume
  4. sweet (very pleasant, physically or psychologically)
    salds brīdissweet moment
    saldas atmiņassweet memories
    saldu dusu! — sleep well! (lit. sweet quietness, rest, sleep)
    saldais rīta miegssweet morning sleep
    ar kādu saldu prieku Annele bija izgājusi meklēt zemi un taisnību — with sweet joy Annele had left to look for land and justice
    ir salda laime vasaras naktī klaiņot ar mīļu meiteni pa aizmigušajiem laukiem — it is sweet happiness in a summer night to wander with a beautiful girl through the sleeping countryside
  5. excessively kind, excessively flattering, hypocritically subservient
    runāt saldā balsī — to talk in a sweet (= flattering) voice
    rokas priekšautā slaucīdama, savu vissaldāko smaidu sejā, Bitiene iztecēja pretī — wiping (her) hands on (her) apron, with her sweetest smile on (her) face, Bitiene came out toward (them)
  6. sentimental, lyrical
    salda dziesma — sentimental (lit. sweet) song
    tenors dzied saldu dziesmu vācu valodā — the tenor sang a sweet, sentimental song in German

DeclensionEdit

Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ “salds” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7