stāvēt

See also: stavět

LatvianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Baltic *stā-, from Proto-Indo-European *stā- < *steh₂- (to stand)), whence also Latvian stāt, of which stāvēt was originally the iterative-durative form. Initially stāvēt was an i-stem, hence the older conjugated forms stāvju, stāvim, stāvit. The derived prefixed forms of stāvēt have often developed independent meanings (ex. aizstāvēt “to defend,” or pārstāvēt “to represent”), only historically derivable from the meaning of the original stem. Cognates include Lithuanian stovė́ti, Old Church Slavonic ставити (staviti, to put, to place), Russian ставить (stávit’), Ukrainian ставити (stávyty), Bulgarian ставя (stávja, to get up; to become; to suit, to be appropriate; to happen; to grow), Czech staviti (to put, to build; to delay), Polish stawić (to put, to build, to plant), Gothic 𐍃𐍄𐍉𐌾𐌰𐌽 (stōjan, to judge) (maybe < *stōwjan (*stōwjan)), 𐍃𐍄𐌰𐌿𐌰 (staua, court), Old English stowian (to stop, to delay), English stow.[1]

PronunciationEdit

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VerbEdit

stāvēt intr., 3rd conj., pres. stāvu, stāvi, stāv, past stāvēju

  1. to stand (to be in an upright position, supported by one's legs)
    stāvēt nekustīgi, mierīgi — to stand still
    stāvēt stalti — to stand tall
    stāvēt taisni — to stand up straight
    stāvēt uz pirkstgaliem — to stand on (one's) toes
    stāvēt uz vienas kājas — to stand on one leg
    stāvēt uz ceļiem — to stand on (one's) knees
    stāvēt uz rokām — to stand one (one's) hands
    stāvēt uz galvas — to stand one (one's) head
    stāvēt ar muguru pret durvīm — to stand with (one's) back to the door
    stāv, atspiedies pret krāsni — he stands, leaning against the stove
    suns stāv pie durvīm — the dog is standing at the door
    stāvēt pakaļkājās, uz pakaļkājām — to stand on its hind legs
    stāv ka stabs — he stands like a pillar
    stāvēt sētsvidū — to stand in the courtyard
    stāvēt uz ielas — to stand on the street
    stāvēt pie loga — to stand by the window
    stāvēt zem koka — to stand under the tree
    stāvēt blakus tēvam — to stand near (one's) father
    stāvēt lietū — to stand under the rain
    stāvēt rindā pie kases — to stand in line at the checkout
    ilgi stāvēju pie autobusa pieturas — I stood a while at the bus stop
    nav pieklājīgi visu laiku kājās stāvēt! apsēdies! — it is not polite to be standing on one's legs all the time! do sit down!
    viņš nokļuva pie sārta, ap kuru liels pulks cilvēku stāvēja un sēdēja — he came to the fire, around which a large crowd of people stood and sat
  2. (of objects) to stand (to be in an upright position, resting on its base, so that it does not fall over)
    svece stāv taisni — the candle is standing straight
    masts stāv slīpi — the mast is standing at an angle
  3. to stand, to work, to be (to perform some activity, to do one's work, one's duty, usually in an upright position)
    stāvēt aiz letes — to stand, work behind the counter
    stāvēt pie plīts — to stand, work at the stove
    stāvēt pie virpas — to stand, work at the lathe
    stāvēt godasardzē — to stand, be in the honor guard
    stāvēt postenī — to stand, be in one's position, station
    stāvēt sardzē — to stand in guard (= to defend something)
    katrs matrozis pēc kārtas te vienu stundu un divdesmit minūtes stāvēja pie stūres — each sailor would stand an hour and twenty minutes at the helm, following a row
  4. (usually in the imperative) to stop (to interrupt one's motion, to remain immobile)
    stāvi, citādi šaušu!stop (= freeze), or else I'll shoot!
  5. (of vehicles) to stop, to not be in motion (somehwere)
    vienu dienu skatos: Igora traktors stāv — one day I look: Igors' tractor is standing (= idle, not in use)
    vilciens pašreiz stāvēja pie kādas mazas lauku piestātnes, kur ņēma slimajiem tējas ūdeni — the train was now standing at the small platform of a field, where the sick were being given tea water
    netālu stāv kāds liels amerikāņu tvaikonis, kurā iekrauj milzīgus sarkankoka stumbrus — not far stood a large American steamber, in which large redwood trunks were being loaded
  6. (of machines) to stop, to not work
    visus šos mēnešus pulkstenis bija stāvējis — all those months the clock had stood (= had not worked)
    dzirnavas strādāja... ja vecais Pakalns nebūtu noaudis siksnu, varbūt tās vēl tagad stāvētu — the mills were working... if the old Pakalns had not woven/made the strap, maybe they would still be standing (= not working)
  7. (of flying objects, creatures) to be, to hover (to hover, to remain in the air, without much changing position)
    debesīs augstu stāv vanags — high in the sky was, hovered(lit. stood) a hawk
    viens mākonis apstājies stāv — one cloud, having stopped, stands (= does not move)
    mākoņi nekad nevar norimt, kaut arī liekas stāvam uz vietas — clouds can never fade (away), they just seem somehow to stand (= be) in one place
    mežmalā virs dumbrāja... lidinājās plēsīgais vanags; it kā gaisā pakāries, tas ilgāku laiku stāvēja uz vietas, bet tad līdzīgi akmenim stāvus nokrita lejā — over the edge of a forest swap... hovered a hunting hawk; as if hanging in the air, he stood for a long time in one place, and then fell down standing like a stone
  8. (figuratively, of work) to stand (to not be done, to not progress, to not be carried out)
    nepabeigtais romāns stāv — the unfinished novel stands (= is not being written, is not going forward)
    adīklis stāv neaiztikts — the knitting stood (= remained) untouched
    laiks gāja uz priekšu, bet sporta laukuma būve stāvēja uz vietas — time went by, but the building of the sports field stood in place (= did not progress)
    trūkstot rezerves daļu; un, ja nav ko likt salūzušo vietā, tad laiks iet, bet remonts stāv — spare parts (were) lacking; and, if you don't have anything to put in the broken part, then time goes by, but the reparation stands (= does not progress)
  9. (usually of objects) to be, to be located (to occupy a certain position, place)
    istabas vidū stāv galds — (there) stands (= is) a table in the middle of the room
    uz galda stāv šķīvji — (there) stand (= are) plates on the table
    pie ārdurvīm stāv kājslauķis — at the door (there) stands (= is) a doormat
    pagalmā stāv automobilis — (there) stands (= is) an automobile in the courtyard
    kalnā aiz sirmiem ķeltiem stāvēja ķēniņa pils — on the hill, behind the gray Celts, stood the king's palace
    skolas ēka stāvēja gandrīz uz ezera krasta — the school building stood almost on the lake shore
    dārza stūrī stāvēja resna resna liepa — at the corner of the garden stood a thick, thick linden tree
  10. (of food, animals, etc.) to be, to be kept (to be stored, conserved, kept somewhere)
    visa nauda stāvēja pie tēva — all the money stood (= was kept) with father
    kartupeļi pa ziemu stāv pagrabā — potatoes for the winter stand (= are stored) in the cellar
    vai lopi līdz vakaram lai kūtī stāv? — should the animals stand (= be kept) in the barn until summer?
  11. (of people) to stand, to remain somewhere; to be somewhere (e.g., in order to observe something)
    bet nekad vakaros es istabā nestāvēju; gāju uz kapiem, staigāju pa mežu — but I never stood (= stayed) in (my) room in the evening; I went to the graves, I walked through the woods
    Tāle neparko nebija piedabūjama stāvēt pie lopiem salas krūmajā — Tāle could never be convined to stand by (= stay near, watch over) the animals in the island scrub
  12. (of military forces, positions) to be in a certain territory, place
    bataljons stāv savā vietā — the battalion stood (= was) in its place (= position)
    divīzija stāvēja atpūtā, saņēma papildinājumu, mācījās — the division stood (= was) not on duty, received a supplement, studied
    divas nedēļas tur netālu bija stāvējusi fronte — for two weeks the front had stood (= stayed) there, not far
  13. (of heavenly bodies) to be visible in a certain position
    saule stāv zemu — the sun stands (= is) low
    mēness jau stāvēja virs egļu galotnēm un apgaismoja ceļu — the moon stood (= was) already above the tops of the spruce trees and illuminated the road
  14. (of cloud-like natural phenomena) to occur somewhere
    saules nav; viņas vietā stāv biezi miglas mūri — (there) was no sun; instead of it, (there) stood (= were) thick walls of fog
    pār Rīgu stāvēja zilgana novakares dūmaka — a bluish evening haze stood over Rīga
  15. (of texts, words) to be written, printed somewhere; to be present in a text, utterance
    sauca viņu Metuzalemu, tā arī stāvēja pasē un krustāmzīmē — he was called Metuzalem, that's what stood (= was written) in (his) passport and in (his) baptism certificate
    latviešu valodā teikuma priekšmets parasti stāv pirms izteicēja — in the Latvian language, the sentence subject usually stands (= is, comes) before the predicate
  16. to stand (to remain, to resist against time, to conserve itself)
    mana pilsēta stāvēs ilgi — my city will stand (very) long
    svaiga gaļa ilgi nestāv — fresh meat does not stand (= stay good) long
    kā kartupeļi pa ziemu stāvējuši? — how have the potatoes stood the winter?
    rasa stāv līdz pusdienai — the dew stands (= stays) till noon
    viņam nauda nestāv — money does not stand (= remain) on him (= he spends too much)
    vecā sviestā iemīcījusi sāli, lai ilgāk stāv; apēdīsim — (I) had added salt to the old butter, so that it would stand (= remain unspoiled) longer; let us eat it
    maja bija būvēta no sila priežu guļbaļķiem vismaz prims gadiem piecdesmit, taču tā stāvēs vēl droši savus simt gadus — the house was built of pine tree logs at least fifty years ago, but it will stand maybe a hundred years
    lai stāv ziedi, lai aug — let the flowers stand (= be, i.e. remain undisturbed), let them grow
  17. (of clothes, their parts) to stand, to sit (to conform well to the body, its parts)
    uzvalks stāv labi — the suit stands (= sits) well
    ceru, ka kleita tev der... tikai... ja tev nepatīk, kā stāv roku volāni... — I hope the dress fits you well... only... if you don't like how the sleeve ruffles sit... (we can do something about that)
    ja Antonija man teiks: šis drēbes gabals jums stāv kā uzliets, es nešaubīgi ticēšu — if Antonia tells me: this article of clothing fits you like a glove (lit. sits as if poured), I will believe it without any doubt
  18. (with an adjective or adjectival expression) to stand, to be (to have some property, especially for a limited amount of time)
    stāvēt klusu, klusam — to stand (= be, remain) silent
    logs stāv pusvirus — the window stands, is ajar
    istaba stāv tukša — the room stands, is empty
    durvis stāv vaļā — the door stands, is open
    dārzs stāv neravēts — the garden stands, is unweeded
    koki stāv pašā plaukumā — the trees stand, are in full bloom
    stāvēt mierā — to stand (= be) calm, quiet
    stāvēt ciets — to stand closed (= to not give milk, e.g., a cow)
    jūs abas zināt tikai dīkā stāvēt; drīz sanāks ļaudis, zāle nepušķota! — the two of you only know how to stand (= be) idle; soon people will come, (and) the grass (is still) not decorated!
  19. (used impersonally, with ar) to stand, to be (in a situation, state), to go (in a certain way)
    ar mājas kopšanu un labošanu arī stāvēja diezgan vāji — with the maintenance and repair of the house it stood (= was going) rather weakly (= not much was being done)
    ļoti viņš interesējās par to, kā tagad stāv ar kopējo lietu un kas tur tagad visvairāk strādā — he was very interested in how it now is standing (= going) with the common thing (= property) and who was working the most there

ConjugationEdit

Derived termsEdit

prefixed verbs:
  • izstāvēt
  • nostāvēt
  • pastāvēt
  • pārstāvēt
  • piestāvēt
  • sastāvēt

Related termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ “stāvēt” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (Rīga: AVOTS) ISBN: 9984-700-12-7.
Last modified on 13 January 2014, at 06:19