Last modified on 24 May 2015, at 13:37

they

EnglishEdit

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EtymologyEdit

The term was borrowed by Middle English (as they, thei) in the mid 1200s from Old Norse þeir, the nominative plural masculine of the demonstrative , which acted in Old Norse as a plural pronoun. The Norse term derives from Proto-Germanic *þai (those), from Proto-Indo-European *to- (that). It gradually replaced Old English and hīe (they).

Cognate with Old English þā ("those"; whence Modern English tho), Scots thae, thai, thay (they; those), Icelandic þeir (they), Faroese teir (they), Swedish de (they), Danish de (they), Norwegian de (they), Norwegian Nynorsk dei (they), Saterland Frisian dja (they), Dutch die and de, and German die (the; those, plural article and pronoun). See also tho.

The earliest uses of the term as a singular pronoun are from 1325 (a use of þer) and 1478 (a use of they).

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

they (third-person, nominative case, usually plural, sometimes singular, objective case them, possessive their, possessive noun theirs, reflexive themselves, or, singular, themself)

  1. (the third-person plural) A group of people, animals, or objects previously mentioned. [since the 1200s]
    Fred and Jane? They just arrived.
    I have a car and a truck, but they are both broken.
    • 2010, Iguana Invasion!: Exotic Pets Gone Wild in Florida (ISBN 1561644684), page 9:
      There is no reason to be scared of iguanas. They do not attack humans.
  2. (the third-person singular, sometimes proscribed) A single person, previously mentioned, especially if of unknown or non-binary gender. [since the 1300s]
    • 1594, Shakespeare, Comedy of Errors, Act IV, Scene 3:
      There's not a man I meet but doth salute me
      As if I were their well-acquainted friend.
    • 1611, Bible (Authorized, or King James, Version), Deuteronomy 17:5
      Then shalt thou bring forth that man or that woman, which have committed that wicked thing, unto thy gates, even that man or that woman, and shalt stone them with stones, till they die.
    • 1897, Henry James, What Maisie Knew[1], OL 7150009M:
      ‘No – there was some one in the cab.’ The only attenuation she could think of was after a minute to add: ‘But they didn't come up.’
    • 1997, J. K. Rowling, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, (quoted edition: London: Bloomsbury, 2000, ISBN 0 7475 5955 9, page 187):
      Someone knocked into Harry as they hurried past him. It was Hermione.
    • 2008, Michelle Obama, quoted in Lisa Rogak, Michelle Obama in Her Own Words, New York, NY: PublicAffairs, 2009. ISBN 978 1 58648 762 1, page 18:
      One thing a nominee earns is the right to pick the vice president that they think will best reflect their vision of the country, and I am just glad I will have nothing to do with it.
    • For more examples of usage of this term, see the citations page.
  3. (indefinite pronoun, vague meaning) People; some people; someone, excluding the speaker.
    They say it’s a good place to live.
    They didn’t have computers in the old days.
    They should do something about this.
    They have a lot of snow in winter.
  4. Eye dialect spelling of there.
    • 2000, Janice Giles, Hill Man, page 58:
      They ain’t nothin’ wrong with that.
    • 2008, Christian Carvajal, Lightfall, page 82:
      But they ain’t nothin’ in there you didn’t already have.
    • 2010, Alessandro Portelli, They Say in Harlan County: An Oral History, page 207:
      Well, they’s a lot of ‘em didn’t survive, if you believe me.

Usage notesEdit

  • (singular pronoun): They began to be used as a singular pronoun in the 1300s. This usage has been common ever since, despite attempts by some grammarians, beginning in 1795,[1] to condemn it as a violation of traditional (Latinate) agreement rules. Some other grammarians have countered that criticism since at least 1896.[2] Fowler's Modern English Usage (third edition) notes that it "is being left unaltered by copy editors" and is "not widely felt to lie in a prohibited zone." Some authors have compared the use of singular they to the widespread use of singular you instead of thou.[3][4] See Wikipedia's article on singular they for a more in-depth discussion. See also the usage notes about themself.
  • (singular pronoun): Infrequently, they is used of an individual person of known, binary gender. See citations.
  • (singular pronoun): Infrequently, they is used of an individual animal which would more commonly be referred to as it. See citations.
  • For information on the use of he as a generic singular pronoun (for individuals of unspecified or female gender), see he.
  • (indefinite pronoun): One is also an indefinite pronoun, but the two words do not mean the same thing and are rarely interchangeable. "They" refers to people in general, whereas "one" refers to one person (often such that what is true for that person is true for everyone). A writer may also use "you" when talking to everyone in the audience.
    They say, "Beauty is in the eye of the beholder."
    One may say, "Beauty is in the eye of the beholder."
    You may say, "Beauty is in the eye of the beholder."

TranslationsEdit

See alsoEdit

DeterminerEdit

they

  1. (archaic or dialectal) those (used for people)
    • 1802 Swedenborg, E. Arcana cœlestia: or Heavenly mysteries contained in the sacred Scriptures, or Word of the Lord, manifested and laid open [an exposition of Genesis and Exodus]. J. & E. Hodson
      Whereas they are called nations, who are principled in charity and they people who are principled in faith, therefore the priesthood of the Lord is predicated of nations as relation to things celestial, which are goodnesses...
    • 1883 Judy, or the London serio-comic journal, Volume 33 Harvard University [2]
      Darn'd if they Cockney Chaps can zee there worn't nort but lie in him.

ReferencesEdit

StatisticsEdit

AnagramsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Anne Bodine, Androcentrism in Prescriptive Grammar: Singular `they', Sex-indefinite `he', and `he or she', in Language in Society, v. 4 (1975), pages 129-146
  2. ^ William Malone Baskervill and James Witt Sewell's An English Grammar (1896) says singular they is "frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent"; it furthermore recommends changing it to he or she "unless both genders are implied". (Italics in original.)
  3. ^ Michael Reed, Tech Book 1 (ISBN 0956081312), Note abut pronoun usage, page 9: "Singular they can introduce some ambiguity because the antecedent of the pronoun “they” could theoretically be a male or female [... but] English has survived the loss of pronouns such as thou (singular you) despite the consequent potential for ambiguity."
  4. ^ John McWhorter, Word on the Street: Debunking the Myth of a Pure Standard (2009, ISBN 0786731478): "In this light, our modern grammarians' discomfort with singular they is nothing but this comical intermediate stage in an inevitable change, as misguided and futile as the old grumbles about singular you."