vājš

See also: vājs

LatvianEdit

Alternative formsEdit

(dialectal form) vājs

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Indo-European *wāy-, *way- (weak), perhaps derived from *wē- (to blow). Initially there were u- and o-stem forms (cf. Lithuanian dialectal vójus (weak, sick), Latvian dialectal vājs); ultimately replaced by a yu-stem variant, yielding standard language vājš. On the meaning change, cf. pūst, both “to move, advance with the wind blowing” and “to moan, to complain.” Cognates include Sanskrit वायति (vā́jati, to wane, to disappear, to die; to blow) (also वाति (vā́ti, to blow)).[1]

PronunciationEdit

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AdjectiveEdit

vājš (definite vājais, comparative vājāks, superlative visvājākais, adverb vāji)

  1. (of people, animals) weak (not having well developed muscles)
    vājš bērnsweak child
    vājais dzimums — the weak sex (i.e., women)
    vājš sunsweak dog
    askētiski vāja seja — ascetically weak face
    nekad neesmu redzējusi tik vāju cilvēku — I have never seen such a weak person
  2. (of bodies, body parts) weak, poor (which works badly, has little or no strength)
    vājas plaušasweak lungs
    vāja muskulatūraweak muscles
    vājas ausisweak ears (i.e., bad hearing)
    vāja asinsriteweak, poor blood circulation
    vāja elpaweak, poor breath(ing)
    vāja veselībaweak, poor health
    garā vājšweak in the spirit (i.e., mentally ill)
  3. (of people, their personality) weak (without courage, without strength in a difficult situation; vulnerable to negative influences, temptation, etc.)
    vājš rakstursweak character
    pašnāvība ir vāju cilvēku aizsarglīdzeklis — suicide is the defense of weak people
    viņas ir vājas un iespaidojamas — they (children) are weak and impressionable
    vājais, kā mani tavs vājums žņaudz!weak one, your weakness is strangling me!
    ak, mana sirds!... vai tu tik vāja? vai tu nespēj nīst? — oh, my heart!... are you so weak? can't you hate?
  4. (of people) weak (not sufficiently qualified, not really good, skilled in his/her work, bad at fulfilling his/her duties)
    vājš darbinieks jāatlaiž, lai nedemoralizētu pārējosweak employees must be fired, so as not to demoralize the others
    vīrieši jau vispār ir vāji psihologi, sevišķi sievietes pishes saprašanā — men are in general weak psychologists, particularly in understanding the psyche of women
  5. (of machiness, engines) weak, poor (having little power)
    vājš motors, agregātsweak, poor motor, unit
  6. (of natural phenomena, light, sounds) weak, mild, dim (having low intensity)
    vājš vējšweak wind
    vājas zemestrīcesweak, mild earthquakes
    vājš blāzmas atspulgsweak, dim glow (lit. glow reflection)
    vāja atbalssweak echo
  7. (of states, conditions) weak, poor (not good, not sufficient, less than normal, ideal)
    vāja pretestībaweak resistance
    miglā redzamība vāja — in the fog the visibility (is) weak, poor
    zālē vāja dzirdamība — in the hall there is weak, poor audibility
  8. (of solutions, infusions, beverages) weak (having low concentration, low degree of ionization, low alcohol content)
    vāja vērmeļu tējaweak wormwood tea
    vāja skābeweak acid
    vājš vīnsweak wine
  9. (of works, performances) weak, poor (not satisfactory, showing low quality)
    vājš romāns, koncerts, dziedājumsweak novel, concert, singing
    vājš kompozīcija, lekcijaweak composition, lecture
    vāja izrāde, izstādeweak, poor performance, show
    vāja darba organizācijapoor work organization
    vāja disciplīnaweak discipline
  10. (of political, social and economic institutions) weak (ineffective, underdeveloped, having low power)
    vāja armijaweak army
    vāja uzņēmumsweak enterprise, company, business
  11. (of soil, harvest) weak, poor (having low quality, low yield)
    vāja zeme, ražaweak soil, harvest
  12. (of food) poor (not rich, not caloric)
    kareivju ēdiens kļuva pavisam vājš; maizes vietā izsniedza sausiņus — the soldiers' food became very weak; instead of bread, they were given crackers
  13. (figuratively, of feelings, mental activities) weak, poor (insufficient, unsatisfactory)
    dot slimniekam vājas cerības — to give the patient poor expectations
    vājš mierinājumsweak, poor consolation

DeclensionEdit

AntonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ “vājš” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (Rīga: AVOTS) ISBN: 9984-700-12-7.
Last modified on 26 September 2013, at 14:15