viņš

See also: vins, vîns, and vīns

LatgalianEdit

PronounEdit

viņš m

  1. that one, that, the other one, the other

LatvianEdit

EtymologyEdit

There are several theories on the origin of this word. According to some, it has the same origin as one: Proto-Baltic *winyas, from Proto-Indo-European *óynos, *éynos, *ínos (possibly from *h₁ey-, *ey-, *i- (that; he)), made into a yo-stem and with an extra initial w-. Others suggest a connection with Old Prussian winna (outside) (possibly < *winnā < *winnān), from wins (air (outside)), derived from a possible Proto-Baltic *vina-. A more recent suggestion is that viņš results from a compound of *vinE (E = conditioned vowel) + an old jis, is (there, he) (cf. Lithuanian jis (he)), with *vinE corresponding to Old Prussian winna and to Old Church Slavonic вънѣ (vŭně, outside) (cf. Russian вне (outside)). From *vin-(j)is > viņš, and from *vin-(j)i > *viņi > viņa, by analogy with feminine a-stems. The dialectal (Pilda Latgalian) form veńìs (masc.), veńei (fem.) lend this hypothesis some support.[1]

PronunciationEdit

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PronounEdit

viņš (personal, 3rd person singular masculine) (fem. viņa, masc. pl. viņi, fem. pl. viņas)

  1. he; third person pronoun, referring to someone other than the speaker or addressee
    ienāca lektors, viņu saņēma aplausiem — the lecturer came in, (the audience) received him with applause
    to sacīja viņa tēvshis father said that
    Blaumanis aizbrauca uz Valmieru; tur notika “Indrānu” izrāde, kurā arī viņam pašam bija loma — Blaumanis went to Valmieru; there was the “Indrāni” show, in which he himself had (= played) a part
  2. his (in the genitive, as part of certain titles)
    viņa eminence, majestāte, augstībahis eminence, majesty, highness
  3. he (referring to masculine animals, objects, etc.)
    sunim nezin kas uznācis, sāka pa vakariem gaudot, tā ka vajadzēja aizvest uz riju un ieslodzīt pelavu pūnītē, tur viņš gan vaimanāja vēl skaļāk — the dog didn't know what come up, began to howl in the evening, so that it was necessary to take him to the barn and lock him up, (and) there he howled even louder
  4. (usually as a non-nominative determiner) that, the other (one); distal demonstrative
    viņā malā, galā, puse — on the other bank, end, side
    aiziet līdz viņam stūriem — to go up to that, the other corner
    viņās dienās — in those days (= in earlier days, in the past)
    viņos laikos — in those times (= in old, ancient times)
    te pa ceļu no viņas puses kāds brauc — here on the road someone is going (by) from the other side

DeclensionEdit

Related termsEdit

  • viņējs

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ “viņš” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (Rīga: AVOTS) ISBN: 9984-700-12-7.
Last modified on 7 January 2014, at 00:35