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LatvianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From the stem of the verb ļaut(to allow, to permit; to tolerate) (q.v.), with a suffix *-no. The original meaning was probably “allowed (to do as s/he pleased), allowed (to let go)” (compare palaist(to let go), palaidnis(naughty child)). Cognates include Lithuanian liáunas, liaũnas(flexible; slim, slender; weal; free, serene).[1]

PronunciationEdit

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AdjectiveEdit

ļauns (def. ļaunais, comp. ļaunāks, sup. visļaunākais; adv. ļauni)

  1. evil, wicked (whose behavior, attitude towards others is hostile, cruel, vile, criminal)
    ļauns cilvēks‎ ― evil person
    viens un tas pats cilvēks var būt vienā brīdī bezgala labs un otrā, neticami ļauns‎ ― the same person can be one moment infintely good, and then, incredibly evil
  2. evil (expressing hatred, cruelty)
    ļauns smīns‎ ― evil grin
    ļauna sirds‎ ― evil heart, malice
    ļauns prieks‎ ― gloat (lit. evil joy)
    ļauna acs (kādam)‎ ― (someone has) evil eye (i.e., can curse)
  3. evil, bad (relating to, leading to something very undesirable, misfortune, sorrow; dangerous)
    ļauns liktenis‎ ― evil fate
    ļauns stāvoklis‎ ― bad, twisted condition
    noticis kas ļauns‎ ― something bad happened
    ļaunākajā gadījumā‎ ― in the worst (lit. worse) case
    visas labās un ļaunās dienas‎ ― all the good and bad days
  4. evil, twisted, dark (whose content expresses something hateful, cruel)
    ļauns humors‎ ― twisted, dark humor
    ļauna slava‎ ― infamy (lit. evil fame)
  5. (of animals, plants) harmful
    no gundegu sugām pašas indīgākās ir ļaunās gundegas‎ ― of all species of buttercup the most poisonous is the celery-leaved buttercup (lit. evil buttercup)

DeclensionEdit

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ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “ļauns”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7