Ancient Greek

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Etymology

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From Proto-Hellenic *génos, from Proto-Indo-European *ǵénh₁os (genus, clan, family), from *ǵenh₁- (to give birth) (whence γίγνομαι (gígnomai)). Cognate with Latin genus, Sanskrit जनस् (jánas), Old Armenian ծին (cin) and others.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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γένος (génosn (genitive γένεος or γένους); third declension

  1. race, stock, kin
    • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 13.354:
      ἀμφοτέροισιν ὁμὸν γένος ἠδ᾽ ἴα πάτρη
      amphotéroisin homòn génos ēd᾽ ía pátrē
    1. direct descent, as opposed to collateral relationship
      • 4th century BC, Isaeus, Ciron 33:
        γένος γὰρ ἀλλ᾽ οὐχὶ συγγένεια τοῦτ᾽ ἐστίν
        génos gàr all᾽ oukhì sungéneia toût᾽ estín
  2. offspring, descendant
    • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 6.180:
      ἣ δ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ἔην θεῖον γένος οὐδ᾽ ἀνθρώπων
      hḕ d᾽ ár᾽ éēn theîon génos oud᾽ anthrṓpōn
    1. (collective) offspring, posterity
  3. (in general) race of beings
    • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 12.23:
      ἡμιθέων γένος ἀνδρῶν
      hēmithéōn génos andrôn
    1. family, clan, house
      • 460 BCE – 420 BCE, Herodotus, Histories 1.35.1:
        Φρὺξ μὲν γενεῇ, γένεος δὲ τοῦ βασιληΐου
        Phrùx mèn geneêi, géneos dè toû basilēḯou
    2. tribe, nation, race, as a subdivision of ἔθνος (éthnos)
    3. caste
      • 460 BCE – 420 BCE, Herodotus, Histories 2.164.1:
        ἔστι δὲ Αἰγυπτίων ἑπτὰ γένεα
        ésti dè Aiguptíōn heptà génea
        The Egyptians are divided into seven classes
    4. breed of animals
  4. age, generation, time of life
  5. sex, gender
    1. (grammar) grammatical gender
  6. class, sort, kind
    • 430 BCE – 354 BCE, Xenophon, Cynegeticus 3.1:
      Τὰ δὲ γένη τῶν κυνῶν διττά
      Tà dè génē tôn kunôn dittá
      The hounds used are of two kinds
    1. (logic) the opposite of εἶδος (eîdos, species)
      • 384 BCE – 322 BCE, Aristotle, Metaphysics 1059β.36:
        τὰ γένη δ᾽ εἰς εἴδη πλείω καὶ διαφέροντα διαιρεῖται
        génē d᾽ eis eídē pleíō kaì diaphéronta diaireîtai
    2. (taxonomy) class
      1. (taxonomy) genus
      2. species of plant; crop, produce; material
        • 371 BCE – 287 BCE, Theophrastus, Enquiry into Plants 4.8.13
        • PTeb. 66.43:
          ἄλλοις γένεσι τοῖς πρὸς πυρὸν διοικουμένοις
          állois génesi toîs pròs puròn dioikouménois
    3. element

Declension

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Descendants

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  • Aramaic: גניסא, גנסא
  • Greek: γένος (génos)

References

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Greek

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Etymology

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From Ancient Greek γένος (génos). Also see γίγνομαι (gígnomai, I am born).

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ʝenos/
  • Audio:(file)
  • Hyphenation: γέ‧νος

Noun

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γένος (génosn (plural γένη)

  1. family
  2. nation
  3. (taxonomy, biology) genus
  4. (grammar) gender (masculine, feminine, etc)
  5. maiden name, née
    Η Ελένη Παπαδοπούλου, το γένος Μενεγάκη.
    I Eléni Papadopoúlou, to génos Menegáki.
    Eleni Papadopoulou née Menegaki.

Declension

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Coordinate terms

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and see

Further reading

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