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Ancient GreekEdit

EtymologyEdit

From εὐσεβής (eusebḗs, pious) +‎ -ια (-ia). The sense “dharma” is a semantic loan from Ashokan Prakrit 𑀥𑀁𑀫 (dhaṃma).

PronunciationEdit

 

NounEdit

εὐσέβειᾰ (eusébeiaf (genitive εὐσεβείᾱς); first declension

  1. (religion) piety
    • Bacchylides (c.518‑ c.451 BCE), Epinicians. Ode 3 Ἱέρωνι Συρακοσίῳ Ἵπποις Ὀλύμπια [For Hieron of Syracuse Chariot-Race at Olympia 468 BCE], 58‑62:
      τότε Δαλογενὴς Ἀπόλλων / φέρων ἐς Ὑπερβορέους γέροντα / σὺν τανισφύροις κατένασσε κούραις / δἰ εὐσέβειαν, ὅτι μέγιστα θνατῶν. / ἐς ἀγαθέαν ἀνέπεμψε Πυθώ.
      tóte Dalogenḕs Apóllōn / phérōn es Huperboréous géronta / sùn tanisphúrois katénasse koúrais / di eusébeian, hóti mégista thnatôn. / es agathéan anépempse Puthṓ.
      Then Apollo, born on Delos, / brought the old man to live among the Hyperboreans, / along with his slender-ankled daughters, / because of his piety, since of all mortals he sent the greatest gifts to holy Pytho. (tr. Diane Arnson Svarlien, 1991)
    • Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon, 3,129, ed. Charles Darwin Adams.
      ἐπειδὴ δὲ οὔτε τὰ χρήματα ἐξέτινον τῷ θεῷ, τούς τ’ ἐναγεῖς κατήγαγον, καὶ τοὺς εὐσεβεῖς καὶ κατελθόντας διὰ τῶν Ἀμφικτυόνων ἐξέβαλον, οὕτως ἤδη τὴν δευτέραν στρατείαν ἐποιήσαντο, πολλῷ χρόνῳ ὕστερον, ἐπανεληλυθότος Φιλίππου ἐκ τῆς ἐπὶ τοὺς Σκύθας στρατείας, τῶν μὲν θεῶν τὴν ἡγεμονίαν τῆς εὐσεβείας ἡμῖν παραδεδωκότων, τῆς δὲ Δημοσθένους δωροδοκίας ἐμποδὼν γεγενημένης.
      epeidḕ dè oúte tà khrḗmata exétinon tôi theôi, toús t’ enageîs katḗgagon, kaì toùs eusebeîs kaì katelthóntas dià tôn Amphiktuónōn exébalon, hoútōs ḗdē tḕn deutéran strateían epoiḗsanto, pollôi khrónōi hústeron, epanelēluthótos Philíppou ek tês epì toùs Skúthas strateías, tôn mèn theôn tḕn hēgemonían tês eusebeías hēmîn paradedōkótōn, tês dè Dēmosthénous dōrodokías empodṑn gegenēménēs.
      But when the Amphissians failed to pay the money to the god, and had restored the guilty men, and banished those righteous men who had been restored by the Amphictyons, under these circumstances at last the second campaign was made, a long time afterward, when Philip had now returned from his Scythian expedition. It was to us that the gods had offered the leadership in the deed of piety, but Demosthenes' taking of bribes had prevented us. (tr. C. D. Adams, 1919)
    • Septuagint (Rahlfs), Isaiah 11,1-2.
      καὶ ἐξελεύσεται ῥάβδος ἐκ τῆς ῥίζης ιεσσαι καὶ ἄνθος ἐκ τῆς ῥίζης ἀναβήσεται / καὶ ἀναπαύσεται ἐπ' αὐτὸν πνεῦμα τοῦ θεοῦ πνεῦμα σοφίας καὶ συνέσεως πνεῦμα βουλῆς καὶ ἰσχύος πνεῦμα γνώσεως καὶ εὐσεβείας
      kaì exeleúsetai rhábdos ek tês rhízēs iessai kaì ánthos ek tês rhízēs anabḗsetai / kaì anapaúsetai ep' autòn pneûma toû theoû pneûma sophías kaì sunéseōs pneûma boulês kaì iskhúos pneûma gnṓseōs kaì eusebeías
      And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a Branch shall grow out of his roots: And the spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the Lord; (tr. KJV)
    • Septuagint (Rahlfs), Proverbs 13,11.
      ὕπαρξις ἐπισπουδαζομένη μετὰ ἀνομίας ἐλάσσων γίνεται ὁ δὲ συνάγων ἑαυτῷ μετ' εὐσεβείας πληθυνθήσεται ...
      húparxis epispoudazoménē metà anomías elássōn gínetai ho dè sunágōn heautôi met' eusebeías plēthunthḗsetai ...
      Wealth hastily ill-gotten by lawlessness shall be diminished, but he who gathers for himself through piety shall be increased.
    • SBL Greek New Testament, Acts 3,12.
      ἰδὼν δὲ ὁ Πέτρος ἀπεκρίνατο πρὸς τὸν λαόν· Ἄνδρες Ἰσραηλῖται, τί θαυμάζετε ἐπὶ τούτῳ, ἢ ἡμῖν τί ἀτενίζετε ὡς ἰδίᾳ δυνάμει ἢ εὐσεβείᾳ πεποιηκόσιν τοῦ περιπατεῖν αὐτόν;
      idṑn dè ho Pétros apekrínato pròs tòn laón; Ándres Israēlîtai, tí thaumázete epì toútōi, ḕ hēmîn tí atenízete hōs idíāi dunámei ḕ eusebeíāi pepoiēkósin toû peripateîn autón?
      And when Peter saw it, he answered unto the people, Ye men of Israel, why marvel ye at this? or why look ye so earnestly on us, as though by our own power or holiness we had made this man to walk? (tr. KJV)
    • Titus Flavius Josephus, Against Apion, I,60, ed. Niese.
      Ἡμεῖς τοίνυν οὔτε χώραν οἰκοῦμεν παράλιον οὔτ’ ἐμπορίαις χαίρομεν οὐδὲ ταῖς πρὸς ἄλλους διὰ τούτων ἐπιμιξίαις, ἀλλ’ εἰσὶ μὲν ἡμῶν αἱ πόλεις μακρὰν ἀπὸ θαλάσσης ἀνῳκισμέναι, χώραν δὲ ἀγαθὴν νεμόμενοι ταύτην ἐκπονοῦμεν μάλιστα δὴ πάντων περὶ παιδοτροφίαν φιλοκαλοῦντες καὶ τὸ φυλάττειν τοὺς νόμους καὶ τὴν κατὰ τούτους παραδεδομένην εὐσέβειαν ἔργον ἀναγκαιότατον παντὸς τοῦ βίου πεποιημένοι.
      Hēmeîs toínun oúte khṓran oikoûmen parálion oút’ emporíais khaíromen oudè taîs pròs állous dià toútōn epimixíais, all’ eisì mèn hēmôn hai póleis makràn apò thalássēs anōikisménai, khṓran dè agathḕn nemómenoi taútēn ekponoûmen málista dḕ pántōn perì paidotrophían philokaloûntes kaì tò phuláttein toùs nómous kaì tḕn katà toútous paradedoménēn eusébeian érgon anankaiótaton pantòs toû bíou pepoiēménoi.
      As for ourselves, therefore, we neither inhabit a maritime country, nor do we delight in merchandise, nor in such a mixture with other men as arises from it; but the cities we dwell in are remote from the sea, and having a fruitful country for our habitation, we take pains in cultivating that only. Our principal care of all is this, to educate our children well; and we think it to be the most necessary business of our whole life to observe the laws that have been given us, and to keep those rules of piety that have been delivered down to us. (tr. Whiston et al., 1895)
    • Septuagint (Rahlfs), 4 Maccabees 6,22.
      πρὸς ταῦτα ὑμεῖς μέν ὦ αβρααμ παῖδες εὐγενῶς ὑπὲρ τῆς εὐσεβείας τελευτᾶτε
      pròs taûta humeîs mén ô abraam paîdes eugenôs hupèr tês eusebeías teleutâte
      Therefore, o children of Abraham, die nobly for the sake of piety!
  2. filial piety
    • 428 BCE – 347 BCE, Plato
      The Republic. 615c (book X), ed. John Burnet.
      τῶν δὲ εὐθὺς γενομένων καὶ ὀλίγον χρόνον βιούντων πέρι ἄλλα ἔλεγεν οὐκ ἄξια μνήμης. εἰς δὲ θεοὺς ἀσεβείας τε καὶ εὐσεβείας καὶ γονέας καὶ αὐτόχειρος φόνου μείζους ἔτι τοὺς μισθοὺς διηγεῖτο.
      tôn dè euthùs genoménōn kaì olígon khrónon bioúntōn péri álla élegen ouk áxia mnḗmēs. eis dè theoùs asebeías te kaì eusebeías kaì gonéas kaì autókheiros phónou meízous éti toùs misthoùs diēgeîto.
      and he said other things, not worth mentioning, about those who had died just after their birth, and about those who were short-lived. And about impiety and piety towards gods and parents and of those who killed with their own hands (murderers), the requitals, he said, are much greater.
  3. loyalty
  4. (Indian religions) dharma[1]
    • Circa 258 BCE, from one of the Edicts of Ashoka on the Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription:
      δέκα ἐτῶν πληρη[θέντ]ων βασι[λ]εὺς
      Πιοδασσης εὐσέβεια[ν ἔδ]ε[ι]ξεν τοῖς ἀν-
      θρώποις, καὶ ἀπὸ τούτου εὐσεβεστέρους
      τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ἐποίησεν καὶ πάντα
      εὐθηνεῖ κατὰ πᾶσαν γῆν
      déka etôn plērē[thént]ōn basi[l]eùs
      Piodassēs eusébeia[n éd]e[i]xen toîs an-
      thrṓpois, kaì apò toútou eusebestérous
      toùs anthrṓpous epoíēsen kaì pánta
      euthēneî katà pâsan gên
      Ten years [of reign] having been completed, King
      Piodasses [Ashoka] made known [the doctrine of] dharma
      to men; and from this moment he has made
      men more pious, and everything
      thrives throughout the whole world.

DeclensionEdit

AntonymsEdit

Related termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Paul Hacker (July 2006), “Dharma in Hinduism”, in Journal of Indian Philosophy[1], volume 34, issue 5, page 480 of 479-496.

Further readingEdit


GreekEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /efˈse.vi.a/
  • Hyphenation: ευ‧σέ‧βει‧α

NounEdit

εὐσέβεια (eὐséveiaf

  1. Polytonic spelling of ευσέβεια (efséveia)