Bulgarian

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Etymology 1

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From Proto-Slavic *po.

Pronunciation

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Preposition

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по (po)

  1. used to indicate movement over a surface or movement bound to certain limits (usually continuous or repeating in time), on, over, through, along
    Вървя по улицата.
    Vǎrvja po ulicata.
    I am walking on the street.
  2. introducing the object of a targeted action or for an action related to certain state, on, over, for
    Потупах го по рамото.
    Potupah go po ramoto.
    I tapped him on the shoulder.
    Ударих го по главата.
    Udarih go po glavata.
    I hit him on/over the head.
    Тъгувам по лятото.
    Tǎguvam po ljatoto.
    I long for the summer.
  3. in conjunction with countable nouns for price or quantity, expressing quantity, expressing distribution, by
    По евро за книга.
    Po evro za kniga.
    A euro for a book.
    Двама по двама.
    Dvama po dvama.
    Two by two.
    Тичам по малко (всеки ден).
    Tičam po malko (vseki den).
    I am running a little (every day).
  4. expressing approximate time
    По обед.
    Po obed.
    Around lunchtime.
    По Коледа.
    Po Koleda.
    Around Christmas.
  5. used to describe attire, in, with ... on
    Ходя по чорапи.
    Hodja po čorapi.
    I am walking in my socks.
  6. used to indicate means, by, via, on
    Пращам го по автобус.
    Praštam go po avtobus.
    I am sending it by bus.
    Пращам го по въздушна поща.
    Praštam go po vǎzdušna pošta.
    I am sending it via airmail.
    Говоря по телефона.
    Govorja po telefona.
    I am talking on the phone.
  7. indicating an activity or its domain, of
    Учител по история.
    Učitel po istorija.
    History teacher.
    Факултет по физика.
    Fakultet po fizika.
    Faculty of physics.
  8. according to, based on, by, of
    Съдя го по външността му.
    Sǎdja go po vǎnšnostta mu.
    I am judging him by his appearance.
    Работя по усмотрение.
    Rabotja po usmotrenie.
    I work of my own accord.
  9. used to indicate cause, by
    Пропуснато е по погрешка.
    Propusnato e po pogreška.
    It is missed by mistake.
    По негова вина закъснях.
    Po negova vina zakǎsnjah.
    It is his fault I was late.
  10. used to indicate direction, along
    Плувам по течението.
    Pluvam po tečenieto.
    I am swimming along the current.
    Ходя по пътеката.
    Hodja po pǎtekata.
    I am walking along the path.

Etymology 2

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Pronunciation

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Particle

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по́- (pó-)

  1. used as a prefix to form comparative for adjectives and adverbs, more
    Корабите са по-бавни от самолетите.
    Korabite sa po-bavni ot samoletite.
    Ships are slower than airplanes.
    Този филм е по-интересен.
    Tozi film e po-interesen.
    This film is more interesting.
    Трябва да ходя по-бързо.
    Trjabva da hodja po-bǎrzo.
    I should walk faster.

Particle

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по́ ()

  1. used for nouns, verbs and other parts of speech to form a comparative, more
    По́ я обичам!
    ja običam!
    I love her more!
    Той е по́ юнак от теб.
    Toj e junak ot teb.
    He is more of a hero than you.
  2. used before prepositions to form a comparative, more, further
    Областта е по́ на север.
    Oblastta e na sever.
    The region is further to the north.

See also

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Anagrams

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Macedonian

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *po.

Pronunciation

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Preposition

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по (po)

  1. after
    Ќе се вратат по вечерата.Ḱe se vratat po večerata.They'll return after dinner.
  2. on (movement along a surface)
    Одам по улицата.Odam po ulicata.I'm walking on the street.
  3. by (distributive)
    Влезете еден по еден.Vlezete eden po eden.Enter one by one.
  4. times
    Два по два е четири.Dva po dva e četiri.Two times two is four.
  5. (colloquial) according to
    По тебе, што ќе се случи следно?Po tebe, što ḱe se sluči sledno?According to you, what's going to happen next?
  6. wearing
    Излегува по кратки ракави.Izleguva po kratki rakavi.He goes out wearing short sleeves.
  7. in pursuit of, in order to acquire
    Отиде на пазар по пиперки.Otide na pazar po piperki.He went to the marketplace to get peppers.

Old Church Slavonic

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Etymology

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From Proto-Slavic *po.

Preposition

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по (po)

  1. along
  2. on
  3. after
  4. by

References

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  • Mali staroslavensko-hrvatski rječnik, Matica hrvatska, Zagreb, 2004

Russian

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *po.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [pə]
  • IPA(key): [pɐ] (before a stressed syllable)
  • IPA(key): [ˈpo] (when stressed)
  • Audio:(file)

Preposition

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по (po)

  1. with dative case
    1. Used broadly to indicate action, typically involving movement, across a surface or across several things in a generally flat plane; across, on, along, down, up, all over, (all) around:
      Тарака́н бе́гал по столу́.Tarakán bégal po stolú.The cockroach ran across the table.
      Он плыл по реке́.On plyl po reké.He swam down the river.
      Они́ путеше́ствовали по Евро́пе.Oní putešéstvovali po Jevrópe.They travelled around Europe.
      Они́ путеше́ствовали по ра́зным города́м.Oní putešéstvovali po ráznym gorodám.They travelled around different cities.
      Он погла́дил меня́ по щеке́.On pogládil menjá po ščeké.He stroked my cheek. / He stroked me on/across the cheek.
      Они́ уда́рили меня́ по голове́.Oní udárili menjá po golové.They hit me on/over/across the head.
    2. Used to indicate the object/field/topic that something applies to; for, on, about, in, of (or translated with an attributive noun followed by a noun)
      Министе́рство по чрезвыча́йным ситуа́циям (МЧС)Ministérstvo po črezvyčájnym situácijam (MČS)The Ministry of Emergency Situations (MChS)
      руково́дство по шитью́rukovódstvo po šitʹjúsewing guide / guide to/for/on sewing
      рекоменда́ции по устране́нию угро́зrekomendácii po ustranéniju ugrózrecommendations to eliminate threats / recommendations for/on eliminating threats
      экза́мен по биоло́гииekzámen po biológiibiology exam (literally, “exam on/in/for biology”)
    3. Used to indicate accordance with, adherence to or judgement based on something; according to, from, by
      су́дя по его́ поведе́ниюsúdja po jevó povedénijujudging from his behaviour
      Я по́нял э́то по его́ го́лосу.Ja pónjal éto po jevó gólosu.I could tell by/from his voice.
      по пла́нуpo plánuaccording to plan
      де́йствовать по пра́виламdéjstvovatʹ po právilamto act according to / in accordance/line with the rules
      Synonym: (partial) согла́сно (soglásno)
    4. Used to indicate the reason for something, typically undesired/undesirable (see usage notes on из-за (iz-za)); due to, on account of, out of, from, by
      Он ушёл на пе́нсию по боле́зни.On ušól na pénsiju po bolézni.He retired due to illness.
      Аро́н вчера́ опозда́л по рассе́янности.Arón včerá opozdál po rasséjannosti.Aaron was late yesterday because of a distraction.
      Synonym: из-за (iz-za)
    5. Used with time (usually times of day or days of the week) to indicate regular repetition; on, in (the), every (or translated with a plural noun)
      по четверга́мpo četvergám(on) Thursdays / every Thursday
      по вечера́мpo večerámevenings / every evening
      Synonym: ка́ждый (káždyj)
    6. Used with numbers when there is distribution among multiple objects or repetition across multiple instances in time (dative case is used with the numbers one, a thousand, a million, a billion, a trillion etc. and numbers ending in these words)
      Я дал ка́ждому челове́ку по двадцати́ одному́ рублю́.Ja dal káždomu čelovéku po dvadcatí odnomú rubljú.I gave each person twenty-one roubles.
      Он пла́вал ка́ждый день по ты́сяче ме́тров.On plával káždyj denʹ po týsjače métrov.He swam a thousand metres every day.
      Они́ продаю́т по миллио́ну альбо́мов в год.Oní prodajút po milliónu alʹbómov v god.They sell a million albums a year.
  2. with accusative case
    1. Used with numbers when there is distribution among multiple objects or repetition across multiple instances in time (inanimate accusative case is used with numbers other than one, a thousand, a million, a billion, a trillion etc. or numbers ending in these words)
      Они́ бы́ли разделены́ на гру́ппы по три челове́ка.Oní býli razdelený na grúppy po tri čelovéka.They were divided into groups of three people. (Note: not the animate трёх (trjox).)
      Он получа́л по два́дцать пять фу́нтов в неде́лю.On polučál po dvádcatʹ pjatʹ fúntov v nedélju.He received £25 a week.
    2. Used to indicate something serving as the boundary of the extent of some action.
      Я всади́л в ружьё штык по са́мое ду́ло.Ja vsadíl v ružʹjó štyk po sámoje dúlo.I stuck a bayonet into a gun to the very barrel.
      Synonym: до (do)
  3. with prepositional case
    1. (literary, official) Used to indicate a temporal or spatial boundary; (immediately) after, upon, on
      по прие́зде/прибы́тииpo prijézde/pribýtiion/upon arrival
      по истече́нии полуго́даpo istečénii polugódaafter six months
      Synonym: (partial) по́сле (pósle)
    2. to the liking of
      по нёмpo njomto his liking
  4. with prepositional or dative case
    1. Used to indicate an object of rumination, yearning, mourning; over, for
      Он горева́л по моём отсу́тствии.On gorevál po mojóm otsútstvii.He grieved (over) my absence.
      Они́ сходи́ли по нём с ума́.Oní sxodíli po njom s umá.They were going crazy for him.
      Я скуча́ю по тебе́.Ja skučáju po tebé.I miss you.

Usage notes

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  • When used with numbers in the distributive meaning, the following should be noted:
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Serbo-Croatian

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Etymology 1

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From пол, from Proto-Slavic *polъ. See по-.

Alternative forms

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Pronunciation

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Adverb

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по̑ (Latin spelling )

  1. half
    сат и поhour and a half
    четири и поfour thirty
    чов(ј)ек и поan excellent man

Etymology 2

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *po, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂(e)po.

Pronunciation

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Preposition

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по̏ (Latin spelling )

  1. for [+accusative]
    отићи по мл(иј)екоto go and get the milk
    по ц(иј)ели данall day long
    по шести путfor the sixth time
    бити штетан по некога/нештоto be harmful for sb/sth
    добро/лоше по његаgood/bad for him
  2. over, through, across, in, on [+locative]
    ударити по главиto hit on the head
    сн(иј)ег је пао по цестиsnow fell on the road
    вода се пролила по подуwater spilled over the floor
    шетати по шумиto walk in the woods
  3. by, with, through (using an intermediary or medium) [+locative]
    Послао сам му пакет по заједничком пријатељу.I've sent him a package via a mutual friend.
    по зраку/водиby air/water
  4. by, according to [+locative]
    све иде по плануeverything is going according to the plan
    Америка је прва држава по богатству у св(иј)ету.America is the richest country in the world.
    по глави становникаper capita
    жив(ј)ети по принципимаto live according to principles
    по мом(е) мишљењуin my opinion
    по мом рачунуby my reckoning
    по мениin my opinion; as far as I'm concerned
    свирати по слухуto play by ear
    судити по вањштиниto judge by appearance
  5. after [+locative]
    по свршетку сукобаafter (the end of) the conflict
  6. during [+locative]
    по киши/сунцуin the rain/sun
    по дануduring the day
  7. in miscellaneous senses in various phrasal constructs [+locative]
    разум(иј)е се (само) по себиit goes without saying
    нека буде по твомеlet it be your way
    једнак по величиниequal in size
    све је по старомeverything is/goes in the accustomed/usual manner
    по обичајуas usual, according to custom
    по вр(иј)едностиin value
    по свој прилициin all likelihood
    по родуby birth
    по нарави/природиin nature
    по тој ц(иј)ениat this price
    по параграфу 13under section 13
    по што по тоby all means
    по могућностиif possible
    по редуin order, one after another
    по мом укусу(according) to my taste
    по квалитетиby quality
    по томеaccording to this/that, accordingly, consequently, then
    по законуaccording to the law, by the law
    по дуљиниlengthwise

Etymology 3

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Particle

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по (Latin spelling po)

  1. (+ accusative case or nominative case) denoting distribution and succession; by, per, each, apiece
    Попили смо сви по чашицу ракије.We all drank a glass of rakija each.
    корак по коракstep by step
    један по једанone by one
    трипут по сатуthree times per hour
    Cви смо добили по јабуку.Each of us received an apple.

References

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  • по” in Hrvatski jezični portal
  • по” in Hrvatski jezični portal

Shor

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Etymology

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From Proto-Turkic *bu(-n) (this). Compare Old Turkic 𐰉𐰆 (bu, this).

Pronoun

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по (po)

  1. this

See also

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Tajik

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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Inherited from Classical Persian پَا ().

Pronunciation

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Noun

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по (po) (Persian spelling پا)

  1. leg, foot

Inflection

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Derived terms

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Tundra Nenets

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Etymology

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From Proto-Samoyedic *poəj.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [po]
  • Hyphenation: по

Noun

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по (po)

  1. year

References

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  • Pyrerka, A. P., Tereščenko, N. M. (1948) Русско-ненецкий словарь [Russian–Nenets Dictionary], Moscow: Огиз, page 59
  • N. M. Tereschenko (2005) “по”, in Словарь ненецко-русский и русско-ненецкий, 3rd edition, Saint Petersburg: Просвещение, →ISBN

Ukrainian

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *po.

Pronunciation

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Preposition

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по (po)

  1. with locative case
    1. used to indicate a physical object on which an action is taking place, or to indicate a space in which something is taking place.
      По столі́/столу́ розки́дані ру́чки.Po stolí/stolú rozkýdani rúčky.Pens are strewn across the table.
      По мі́сті/мі́сту/мі́стові ді́є коменда́нтська годи́на.Po místi/místu/místovi díje komendántsʹka hodýna.Curfew is in place in the city.
    2. In the direction of.
      йти вниз по ріці́jty vnyz po ricíto follow the river downstream (literally, “to go down in the direction of the river”)
      плисти́ по ві́трі/ві́труplystý po vítri/vítruto sail in the direction of the wind
    3. used to indicate a direct object upon which an action is performed.
      Мене́ вда́рили по голові́.Mené vdáryly po holoví.I was hit on the head.
      Він зи́ркає по на́товпі час від ча́су.Vin zýrkaje po nátovpi čas vid čásu.He looks at the crowd from time to time.
    4. (colloquial) used to indicate someone or something that is being mourned over.
      По ньо́му пла́кала вся Украї́на.Po nʹómu plákala vsja Ukrajína.All of Ukraine was mourning his death. (literally, “All of Ukraine was crying over him.”)
    5. after
      Synonym: пі́сля (píslja)
      Пам'ята́й, си́нку: по те́мній но́чі завжди́ настає́ сві́тлий ра́нок.Pamʺjatáj, sýnku: po témnij nóči zavždý nastajé svítlyj ránok.Remember, son: after a dark night, a bright morning always comes.
    6. (colloquial) used to indicate the disappearance, irreparable damage, or death of someone or something.
      Ку́хлик ви́слизнув з мої́х рук і по ньо́му ста́ло!Kúxlyk výslyznuv z mojíx ruk i po nʹómu stálo!The mug slipped out of my hands and it broke! (literally, “The mug slipped out of my hands and the aftermath of it has become!”)
    7. (colloquial) used to indicate a time-frame during which an action occurs.
      по яскра́вому мі́сяці/мі́сяцюpo jaskrávomu mísjaci/mísjacjuwhen a bright moon (rises)
      по ночахpo nočaxduring the night (literally, “at nights”)
    8. one after another
      годи́на по годи́ніhodýna po hodýnihour after hour
      пи́во по пи́віpývo po pývibeer after beer
    9. (dialectal) used with a temporal noun to indicate the age of something
      Йому́ було́ по шо́стому ро́ці коли́ він пішо́в до шко́ли.Jomú buló po šóstomu róci kolý vin pišóv do škóly.He was six years old when he went to school. (literally, “He was at the sixth year when he went to school.”)
    10. through
      бабу́ся по ма́теріbabúsja po máterimaternal grandmother (literally, “grandmother through the mother”)
      по ба́тьковіpo bátʹkovipatronymic (literally, “through the father”)
      това́риш по шко́ліtováryš po škólischool friend (literally, “friend through school”)
    11. used to indicate the object with which an action is performed.
      підня́тися по моту́зціpidnjátysja po motúzcito climb a rope (literally, “to climb via a rope”)
      транслюва́ти по ра́діоtransljuváty po rádioto broadcast on a radio
    12. used to indicate a justification by which one arrives at a conclusion.
      По її́ поведі́нці мо́жна було́ зрозумі́ти, що щось не так.Po jijí povedínci móžna buló zrozumíty, ščo ščosʹ ne tak.One could tell something is wrong by her behaviour.
      Не суди́ кни́жку по обкла́динці.Ne sudý knýžku po obkládynci.Don't judge a book by its cover.
    13. used with certain nouns to form parentheses.
      Це, по су́ті, відве́рта брехня́.Ce, po súti, vidvérta brexnjá.This is basically a complete lie.
      Він, по ща́стю/ща́сті, зміг утекти́.Vin, po ščástju/ščásti, zmih utektý.He, luckily, was able to escape.
    14. each
      Дай усі́м ді́тям по цуке́рці.Daj usím dítjam po cukérci.Give all the children a candy each.
    15. for (a length of time)
      Лю́ди ви́мушені чека́ти по ти́жню/ти́жні, аби отри́мати ї́жу.Ljúdy výmušeni čekáty po týžnju/týžni, aby otrýmaty jížu.People are forced to wait for a week to get food.
    16. used to indicate distance traveled in a certain period of time.
      Мандрівники́ прохо́дять по п'ятна́дцать кіломе́трів на годинуMandrivnyký proxódjatʹ po pʺjatnádcatʹ kilométriv na hodynuTravelers travel fifteen kilometres each hour. (literally, “Travelers travel by fifteen kilometres each hour.”)
    17. (colloquial) used to indicate the purpose of an action.
      Івасько́ прийшо́в до ньо́го по ді́лу.Ivasʹkó pryjšóv do nʹóho po dílu.Ivan came to him to do business.
    18. (colloquial) used to indicate the reason for an action.
      Ми по ду́рості забу́ли ви́мкнути пра́ску вдо́ма.My po dúrosti zabúly výmknuty prásku vdóma.We have forgotten to turn off the iron at home due to our foolishness.
  2. with accusative case
    1. used with directional nouns to indicate direction
      по пра́ву ру́куpo právu rúkuto the right-hand side
      по лі́ву сто́ронуpo lívu stóronuto the left side
    2. up to
      по колі́наpo kolínaup to the knees
    3. used to indicate an object which is the target of an action
      Треба́ піти́ до крамни́ці по хліб.Trebá pitý do kramnýci po xlib.We need to go to the store for some bread.
      Гайда́ візьме́м сачки́ та й по мете́лики!Hajdá vizʹmém sačký ta j po metélyky!Let's take butterfly nets and go after the butterflies!
    4. until
      Я коха́тиму тебе́ по смерть!Ja koxátymu tebé po smertʹ!I will love you until death!
      Міст буду́ється по сей день.Mist budújetʹsja po sej denʹ.The bridge is still being built to this day. (literally, “The bridge is being built until this day.”)
    5. (with a personal pronoun) used to indicate an action done according to someone's wish or request.
      Сашко́ ро́бить усе́ по його́.Saškó róbytʹ usé po johó.Sasha does everything as he pleases.
    6. used to indicate quantity.
      Не тре́ба мені́ повто́рювати по де́сять разі́в!Ne tréba mení povtórjuvaty po désjatʹ razív!You don't have to repeat it to me ten times!
      Ко́жному дали́ по кількана́дцять гри́вень.Kóžnomu dalý po kilʹkanádcjatʹ hrývenʹ.Everyone was given umpteen hryvnias.
    7. used to indicate the price of something.
      З глу́зду з'ї́хали! Прода́ють я́йця по 80 гри́вень дю́жина!Z hlúzdu zʺjíxaly! Prodájutʹ jájcja po 80 hrývenʹ djúžyna!They've gone insane! They're selling eggs for 80 hryvnias a dozen!

Usage notes

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  • По is not used with the dative case in standard Ukrainian. However, due to influence of Russian, some speakers may use the dative instead of the locative case ones in spoken, or sometimes even written, language; such usage is, however, proscribed.

References

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