Open main menu

Wiktionary β

See also: ו and ־ו





ו־‏ (transliteration needed)

  1. and



וְ־‏ (v'-)

  1. and

Usage notesEdit

  • According to traditional grammar, ו־‏ takes a few different forms, depending on the word to which it is attached.
    • The default form, used when none of the below rules applies, is וְ־‏ (v'-). It is also the only form in ordinary use in colloquial Modern Hebrew.
    • When a word begins with יְ־‏ (y'-), ו־‏ attaches to it to produce וִי־‏ (vi-).
    • When a word begins with one of the labial consonants (ב, ו, מ, or פ, acronymized as בומ״ף (bumáf)), or when the first vowel in a word is the sheva (the vowel in בְ) and the first consonant is not י, the form וּ־‏ (u-) is used.
    • When the vowel in a word is a khataf vowel, ו־‏ takes the corresponding non-khataf vowel: וַאֲדָמָה (va'adamá), וֶאֱיָל (ve'eyál), וָחֳדָשׁים (vokhodashím).
      • When the khataf vowel is followed by a yud (י), it can optionally become a sh'va, after which the ו־‏ may also take on a khirik (וִ־‏). Thus, all three of the following are acceptable combinations of ו־‏ and הֱיִיתֶם (heyitém, you (plural) were): וֶהֱיִיתֶם,‎ וֶהְיִיתֶם, and וִהְיִיתֶם.
    • When the first vowel in a word is a stressed vowel, the form וָ־‏ (va-) is optionally used. In modern Hebrew this is usually limited to set phrases such as וָחֵצִי (vakhétsi, and a half).
  • In Ancient Hebrew, ו־‏ was used before every item of a list except the first; in Modern Hebrew, it's usually only used before the last item, like English and.
  • In Ancient Hebrew, if ו־‏ was attached to a verb, it would often "flip" its conjugation; a verb in the perfect aspect (which became Modern Hebrew's past tense) would use the suffix conjugation (like Modern Hebrew's future tense), and a verb in the imperfect aspect (which became Modern Hebrew future tense) would use the prefix conjugation (like Modern Hebrew's past tense). This behavior is called וי״ו ההיפוך (vav hahipúkh) "the ו of flipping"; unlike the ordinary וי״ו החיבור (vav hakhibúr) "the ו of connection", it does not necessarily have a connective sense. Additionally, vav hahipukh often used a different vowel from what the ordinary vav hakhibur would, and occasionally caused the accent to shift.[1] [2]