Arabic

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Etymology

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Seemingly أَضَافَ (ʔaḍāfa, to add; to admix) borrowed into Aramaic and then back with also the variants دَافَ (dāfa), أَذَافَ (ʔaḏāfa), as there is even begadkefat, and originally wine-drinking met Arabs as a practice of the more urban Aramaic culture, marking various loans in the vinicultural fields such as نَاجُود (nājūd, beaker) and تَاجِر (tājir, wine-merchant).

Pronunciation

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Verb

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أَدَافَ (ʔadāfa) IV, non-past يُدِيفُ‎ (yudīfu) (archaic)

  1. to mix, to dilute, to crush
    Synonyms: شَجَّ (šajja), خَفَّفَ (ḵaffafa)
    • 577 AH / 1181–82 CE, ابن هشام اللخمي [Ibn Hišām al-Laḵmiyy], edited by José Pérez Lázaro, الْمَدْخَلُ إِلَى تَقْوِيمِ اللِسَانِ وَتَعْلِيمِ الْبَيَانِ (al-madḵalu ʔilā taqwīmi l-lisāni wataʕlīmi l-bayāni) [Introducción a la corrección del lenguaje y la enseñanza de la elocuencia] (Fuentes Arábico-Hispanas; 6), volume II, Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional, published 1990, →ISBN, page 336 Nr. 589:
      وَيَقُولُونَ شَرَابٌ مُذَافٌ بِٱلذَّالِ ٱلْمُعْجَمَةِ. وَٱلصَّوَابُ مَدُوفٌ بِدَالٍ غَيْرَ مُعْجَمَةٍ. وَقَدْ دُفْتُ ٱلشَّيْءَ بِغَيْرِهِ أَدُوفُهُ دَوْفًا إِِذَا خَلَطْتَهُ.
      wayaqūlūna šarābun muḏāfun bi-ḏ-ḏāli l-muʕjamati. waṣ-ṣawābu madūfun bidālin ḡayra muʕjamatin. waqad duftu š-šayʔa biḡayrihi ʔadūfuhu dawfan ʔiiḏā ḵalaṭtahu.
      They say muḏāf wine with the dotted ḏal but the correct is madūf with undotted dāl. I diluted the thing in the base stem, I dilute it into a dilution when you have mixed it well.
    • 1226, محمد بن الحسن بن محمد بن الكريم الكاتب البغدادي [Muḥammad bin al-Ḥasan bin Muḥammad bin al-Karīm al-Baḡdādīy], “الباب التاسع في ذكر الحلاوات وأصنافها”, in كتاب الطبيخ ومعجم المآكل الدمشقية, Hindawi Foundation, published 2018, →ISBN, page 75:
      مُكَفَّن
      يُؤْخَذُ رَطْلُ سُكَّرٍ وَثُلُثُ رَطْلِ لَوْزٍ أَوْ فُسْتُقٍ، فَيُدَقُّ ٱلْجَمِيعُ نَاعِمًا، وَيُعْجَنُ بِمَاءِ ٱلْوَرْدِ عَجْنًا قَوِيًّا، ثُمَّ يُطْرَحُ فِي ٱلدَّسْتِ أُوقِيَّةَ شَيْرَجٍ، وَيُحَلُّ نِصْفُ رَطْلِ سُكَّرٍ فَيُعْمَلُ جُلَّابًا، فَإِذَا غَلَى ٱلشَّيْرَجُ طُرِحَ عَلَيْهِ ثُلُثَ ٱلْجُلَّابِ، وَيُوَاصَلُ تَحْرِيكُهُ، ثُمَّ يُطْرَحُ عَلَيْهِ أُوقِيَّةَ نَشًا مُدَافًا بِمَاءٍ، وَلَا يَزَالُ يُحَرَّكُ حَتَّى يَنْعَقِدَ، ثُمَّ يُطْرَحُ عَلَى بَلَاطَةٍ نَاعِمَةٍ حَتَّى يُبَرَّدُ، وَيُبْسَطُ قِطَعًا صِغَارًا مُرَبَّعَةً قَدْرَ ٱلْكَفِّ، ثُمَّ يُجْعَلُ عَلَيْهِ شَيْءٌ مِنْ ذَٰلِكَ ٱلسُّكَّرِ وَٱللَّوْزِ وَٱلْمَعْجُونِ، وَيُلَفُّ عَلَى هَيْئَةِ ٱلْأَوْسَاطِ، ثُمَّ يُذَرُّ عَلَيْهِ ٱلسُّكَّرُ ٱلْمُطَيَّبُ وَيُرْفَعُ.
      mukaffan
      yuʔḵaḏu raṭlu sukkarin waṯuluṯu raṭli lawzin ʔaw fustuqin, fayudaqqu l-jamīʕu nāʕiman, wayuʕjanu bimāʔi l-wardi ʕajnan qawiyyan, ṯumma yuṭraḥu fī d-dasti ʔūqiyyata šayrajin, wayuḥallu niṣfu raṭli sukkarin fayuʕmalu jullāban, faʔiḏā ḡalā š-šayraju ṭuriḥa ʕalayhi ṯuluṯa l-jullābi, wayuwāṣalu taḥrīkuhu, ṯumma yuṭraḥu ʕalayhi ʔūqiyyata našan mudāfan bimāʔin, walā yazālu yuḥarraku ḥattā yanʕaqida, ṯumma yuṭraḥu ʕalā balāṭatin nāʕimatin ḥattā yubarradu, wayubsaṭu qiṭaʕan ṣiḡāran murabbaʕatan qadra l-kaffi, ṯumma yujʕalu ʕalayhi šayʔun min ḏālika s-sukkari wal-lawzi wal-maʕjūni, wayulaffu ʕalā hayʔati l-ʔawsāṭi, ṯumma yuḏarru ʕalayhi s-sukkaru l-muṭayyabu wayurfaʕu.
      Mukaffan
      One takes a rottol of sugar and a third of a rottol of almond and pistachio, then pounds all fine, and kneads with rosewater heartily, then throws an ounce of sesame oil in a kettle, and dissolves half a rottol of sugar, and produces rosewater syrup, and when the sesame oil boils a third of the rosewater syrup is thrown upon it, connected by working it in a bit, then one throws upon it an ounce of starch diluted with water, then one continues to work it in until it becomes a slop, then on casts it upon a thin slate until it cools off, then it is spread into small strands quadrupled after the size of the handpalm, then one applies upon it some of that sugar and the almond and the dough and rolls in around the centres, then one scatters upon it the seasoned sugar and finishes.
    • a. 1333, an-Nuwayrīy, نِهَايَةُ ٱلْأَرَبِ فِي فُنُونِ ٱلْأَدَبِ [nihāyatu l-ʔarabi fī funūni l-ʔadabi]‎[1]:
      (…) فَٱسْحَقْ لَهُ لِكُلِّ رَطْلٍ مِنَ ٱلْمَاءِ مِثْقَالًا مِنْ مِسْكٍ، وَمِثْقَالًا مِنْ عَنْبَرٍ شِحْرِيٍّ مُدَافٍ (…)
      (…) fasḥaq lahu likulli raṭlin mina l-māʔi miṯqālan min miskin, wamiṯqālan min ʕanbarin šiḥriyyin mudāfin (…)
      (…) And crush there for every rottol of water a miṯqāl of musk, and a miṯqāl of diluted šiḥrī ambergris (…)

Conjugation

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References

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  • Corriente, Federico, Pereira, Christophe, Vicente, Angeles, editors (2017), Dictionnaire du faisceau dialectal arabe andalou. Perspectives phraséologiques et étymologiques (in French), Berlin: De Gruyter, →ISBN, page 505
  • Freytag, Georg (1833) “أداف”, in Lexicon arabico-latinum praesertim ex Djeuharii Firuzabadiique et aliorum Arabum operibus adhibitis Golii quoque et aliorum libris confectum[2] (in Latin), volume 2, Halle: C. A. Schwetschke, page 71
  • Kazimirski, Albin de Biberstein (1860) “أداف”, in Dictionnaire arabe-français contenant toutes les racines de la langue arabe, leurs dérivés, tant dans l’idiome vulgaire que dans l’idiome littéral, ainsi que les dialectes d’Alger et de Maroc[3] (in French), volume 1, Paris: Maisonneuve et Cie, pages 750b–751a