أشهل

See also: اشهل‎, أسهل, and اسهل

ArabicEdit

Alternative formsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Color or defect adjective from the root ش ه ل(š-h-l).

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

أَشْهَل (ʾašhal) (feminine شَهْلَاء(šahlāʾ), common plural شُهْل(šuhl))

  1. (obsolete; said of eyes; also used in reference to mountains and wolves with the meaning "dust-coloured inclining to whiteness"[1]) The meaning of this term is uncertain. Possibilities include:
    1. glaucous[2][3] or subglaucous;[3]
    2. having "a mixture of colours" (usually blue or red with black),[1][4] variegated[5] (likely from a confusion with أَشْكَل(ʾaškal) although Abu Mansur al-Azhari considered them to be synonyms):[1][6]
      1. reddish-brown, dark-brown;[7]
      2. bluish-black, deep blue;[8]
    3. of "lighter shades of brown"[9] or amber,[3] tawny,[3] or fawn[10] (likely from a confusion with أَشْعَل(ʾašʿal)).[3]
      • c. 748 CE – 823 CE, Muslim ibn al-Walid, Diwan 45.19:
        كَسَاهَا الخَلَا الرَسْمِيُّ مِنْ كُلِّ جَانِبٍ ‖ طَرَائِقَ حَتَّى سُودُ حَوْزَاتِهَا شُهْلُ
        kasāhā l-ḵalā r-rasmiyyu min kulli jānibin ‖ ṭarāʾiqa ḥattā sūdu ḥawzātihā šuhlu
        • Translation by Arthur Wormhoudt[11]
          The rain dresses the yard on every side
             Paths until the black of nature is blue
      • 988 CE, Ibn al-Nadim, Al-Fihrist :
        احد الاسباب فى ذلك ان المأمون رأى فى منامه كان رجلا ابيض اللون مشربا حمرة واسع الجبهة مقرون الحاجب اجلح الرأس اشهل العينين حسن الشمائل جالس على سريره
        • Translation by Clifford Edmund Bosworth[12]
          One of the reasons for that was that al-Ma'mun had a dream. He saw a man white in complexion but with a reddish tinge, a high forehead, close-together eyebrows, bald, with grey eyes and pleasant features, sitting on his throne.
      • 997 CE – 1062, Ibn Mutarrif al-Tarafi, The Stories of the Prophets :
        ‫ وكانت صفة أيوب صلی الله عليه وسلم أحمر أشهل ناتی الوجنتين غليظ الخلق
        • Translation by Roberto Tottoli[13]
          Job [peace be upon him] was a man of a reddish complexion, blue eyes, protuberant cheeks and bulky constitution.
      • 1025, Avicenna, The Canon of Medicine 3:
        و لهذا السبب تكون عيون الاطفال زرقاء، و شهلاء، و هذه زرقة تكون عن رطوبة بالغة
        • Translation by Christopher T. Leffler, Wasim A. Samara, Tamer H. Hadi, Ali Salman, Faraaz A. Khan[14]
          In this manner, the eyes of children are glaucous (zarqaa) and variegated (shahlaa), and this type of glaucous hue (zurqa) is due to the humour completely.
      • 1126, Cairo Geniza T-S Ar. 51.110.lines 2–5, (original in rasm):
        هذا ما استاجر عمر بن موسى الزيات وهو يومئذ رجل معتدل القامة
        اسمر اللون رقيق السمرة تعلوه حمرا واضح الجبهة صلتها ابلج ما بين الحاجبين
        ازجهما ابخض اشهل اخثم الانف غليظه موجن مستدير اللحية
        ابنة اسمعيل المعروف والدها بالكوهان اليهودية [...]
        • Translation by Geoffrey Khan[15]
          This is what ‘Umar ibn Mūsā, the dealer in oil, who on this day is a man of average stature,
          pure reddy-brown in complexion, with a smooth broad forehead, with fine eyebrows separated in the middle,
          with fleshy eye-lids, dark brown eyes, a wide, thick, nose, prominent cheekbones and a round beard, leased from Ya’’āsa (?)
          ibnat ’Isma‘īl, whose father is known as al-Kohen, the Jewess. […]
DeclensionEdit
Derived termsEdit
Related termsEdit
DescendantsEdit

(via feminine form شَهْلَاء(šahlāʾ)):

See alsoEdit
Colors in Arabic · أَلْوَان(ʾalwān) (layout · text)
     أَبْيَض(ʾabyaḍ), أَشْيَب(ʾašyab)      رَمَادِيّ(ramādiyy), أَغْبَر(ʾaḡbar), أَعْفَر(ʾaʿfar)      أَسْوَد(ʾaswad), غِرْبِيب(ḡirbīb), أَحَمّ(ʾaḥamm), أَدْهَم(ʾadham)
             أَحْمَر(ʾaḥmar), أَصْهَب(ʾaṣhab); قِرْمِزِيّ(qirmiziyy)              أَمْغَر(ʾamḡar), بُرْتُقَالِيّ(burtuqāliyy); بُنِّيّ(bunniyy), أَسْمَر(ʾasmar), أَشْعَل(ʾašʿal), أَشْهَل (ʾašhal)              أَصْفَر(ʾaṣfar), أَشْقَر(ʾašqar); قِشْدِيّ(qišdiyy)
             لَيْمِيّ(laymiyy)              أَخْضَر(ʾaḵḍar), أَحْوَى(ʾaḥwā)              نَعْنَاعِيّ(naʿnāʿiyy)
             سَمَاوِيّ(samāwiyy), فَيْرُوزِيّ(fayrūziyy); حَذَفِيّ(ḥaḏafiyy), شَرْشِيرِيّ(šaršīriyy)              لَازُوَرْدِيّ(lāzuwardiyy)              أَزْرَق(ʾazraq)
             بَنَفْسَجِيّ(banafsajiyy), فِرْفِيرِيّ(firfīriyy); نِيلِيّ(nīliyy)              فُوشِيّ(fūšiyy); أُرْجُوَانِيّ(ʾurjuwāniyy)              وَرْدِيّ(wardiyy), زَهْرِيّ (zahriyy)
ReferencesEdit
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Lane, Edward William (1863) , “أشهل”, in Arabic-English Lexicon, London: Williams & Norgate
  2. ^ Sabra, A. I. (1989) The Optics of Ibn al-Haytham: Books I-III: on Direct Vision[1], II, page 41: "It was frequently used as equivalent to the Greek glaukos, grey, blue-grey, blue-green, light blue, etc. (LSJ). In the Optics it is mentioned as a colour of the eye (or iris) distinguished from blue (azraq). [...] / Kamāl al-Dīn, in Tanqīḥ, 1, p. 106, lists al-shuhla (from ashhal) among four colours of the iris, the other three being dark blue or blue-black (al-kaḥal), blue (azraq) and al-shuʿla; al-shuhla, he says, is closer to al-kaḥal while al-shuʿla is closer to blue. This would seem to make ashhal something like blush grey, but Kamāl al-Dīn appears to be propounding a theory rather than a description of actual usage."
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Maxwell-Stuart, P. G. (1981) Studies in Greek Colour Terminology: Charopos[2], Brill, page 174
  4. ^ Maxwell-Stuart, P. G. (1981) op. cit., page 175
  5. ^ Leffler, Christopher T.; Samara, Wasim A.; Hadi, Tamer H.; Salman, Ali; Khan, Faraaz A. (2020) , “Glaucoma in the Medieval Arab World”, in The History of Glaucoma[3], Wayenborgh Publishing, page 56
  6. ^ Fischer, Wolfdietrich (1965) , “Heller Farbbereich:Rot und Blau”, in Farb- und Formbezeichnung in der Sprache der altarabischen Dichtung[4] (in German), page 353: "Nach den arab. Lexika sind beide etwa synonym. Hinsichtlich der primären Bedeutung von aškal 'unbestimmt, verschiedenartig gefärbt' scheint dies ungefähr zutreffend zu sein und wird durch einen Lis. III 475 = 2. 635a, 14—15 zitierten V. bestätigt:
     

    mutawaḍḍiḥu l-aqrābi fīhi šuhlatun * šaniǧu l-yadaini taḫāluhū maškūlā

     
     

    '(ein Kamel ?) an den Flanken hell gefärbt, doch mit Mischfarbigkeit getrübt, an den Vorderbeinen runzelig, so daß man es für ein undeutlich (gefärbtes Tier) hält'.

     
    […] Es wird, wie die Belege zeigen, als Gegensatz zu adʿaǧ 'schwarzäugig gebraucht', so daß die arab. Lexikographen im unklaren sind, ob bräunliche (d. h. rötliche) oder bläuliche (d. h. schillernde) Augen gemeint sind."
  7. ^ Khan, Geoffrey (1993) Arabic Legal and Administrative Documents in the Cambridge Genizah collections, Cambridge University Press, page 17
  8. ^ Wehr, Hans (1979) , “أشهل”, in J. Milton Cowan, editor, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, 4th edition, Ithaca, NY: Spoken Language Services, →ISBN
  9. ^ Maxwell-Stuart, P. G. (1981) op. cit., page 71
  10. ^ Aigle, Denise (2014) The Mongol-Empire Between Myth and Reality[5], Brill, page 127
  11. ^ The Diwan of Muslim ibn al-Walid, called Sariʻ al Gawani, translated and commented on by Arthur Wormhoudt[6], William Penn College, 1981
  12. ^ Bosworth, C. E. (1963) Medieval Arabic Culture and Administration[7], page xv
  13. ^ Tottoli, Roberto (1998) , “The Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ of Ibn Muṭarrif al-Ṭarafī (d. 454/1062)”, in Al-Qantara[8], volume 19, issue 1, page 153
  14. ^ Leffler, Christopher T.; Samara, Wasim A.; Hadi, Tamer H.; Salman, Ali; Khan, Faraaz A. (2020) op. cit., pages 55–56
  15. ^ Khan, Geoffrey (1993) op. cit., page 169

Etymology 2Edit

VerbEdit

أَشْهَلُ (ʾašhalu) (form I)

  1. first-person singular non-past active indicative of شَهِلَ(šahila)

VerbEdit

أَشْهَلَ (ʾašhala) (form I)

  1. first-person singular non-past active subjunctive of شَهِلَ(šahila)

VerbEdit

أَشْهَلْ (ʾašhal) (form I)

  1. first-person singular non-past active jussive of شَهِلَ(šahila)

Etymology 3Edit

VerbEdit

أَشَهِّلُ (ʾašahhilu) (form II)

  1. first-person singular non-past active indicative of شَهَّلَ(šahhala)

VerbEdit

أَشَهِّلَ (ʾašahhila) (form II)

  1. first-person singular non-past active subjunctive of شَهَّلَ(šahhala)

VerbEdit

أَشَهِّلْ (ʾašahhil) (form II)

  1. first-person singular non-past active jussive of شَهَّلَ(šahhala)

VerbEdit

أَشَهَّلُ (ʾašahhalu) (form II)

  1. first-person singular non-past passive indicative of شَهَّلَ(šahhala)

VerbEdit

أَشَهَّلَ (ʾašahhala) (form II)

  1. first-person singular non-past passive subjunctive of شَهَّلَ(šahhala)

VerbEdit

أَشَهَّلْ (ʾašahhal) (form II)

  1. first-person singular non-past passive jussive of شَهَّلَ(šahhala)

Etymology 4Edit

VerbEdit

أَشْهَلُّ (ʾašhallu) (form IX)

  1. first-person singular non-past active indicative of اِشْهَلَّ(išhalla)

VerbEdit

أَشْهَلَّ (ʾašhalla) (form IX)

  1. first-person singular non-past active subjunctive of اِشْهَلَّ(išhalla)
  2. first-person singular non-past active jussive of اِشْهَلَّ(išhalla)

VerbEdit

أَشْهَلِّ (ʾašhalli) (form IX)

  1. first-person singular non-past active jussive of اِشْهَلَّ(išhalla)