Arabic edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Middle Persian [Book Pahlavi needed] (bldwr, bltdwr, bltwr, blʾtwr /⁠baladūr⁠/), whence also Persian بلادور(balâdur), Classical Syriac ܒܠܕܘܪ(ḇalāḏūr), ܒܠܬܕܘܪ(ḇalāṯdūr), ܒܠܬܘܪ(ḇalāṯūr), Hebrew בלאדורבלדור(ḇalāḏūr) (or בלאזורבלזור (ḇalāzūr), but likely this is a misreading), Middle Armenian պալատուր (palatur), Georgian ბალადური (baladuri). The Iranian term is an Indian borrowing, Sanskrit भल्लात (bhallāta), भल्लातक (bhallātaka, marking-nut plant).

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ba.laː.ður/, /ba.laː.ðir/

Noun edit

بَلاذُر or بَلاذِر (balāḏur or balāḏirm

  1. Malacca-bean, marking-nut (Semecarpus anacardium), harvest and tree)
    Synonym: أَنَقَرْدِيَا(ʔanaqardiyā)
  2. cashew (Anacardium gen. et spp. harvest and tree)

Usage notes edit

  • The marking-nut’s juice, apart from being used for dying clothes, was consumed in the Middle Ages, by Muslims and Jews, because one believed that it improves memory. However the hot and dry fruit, also employed against cold diseases and because of its heart shape against heart conditions – called fructus Anacardii orientalis by pharmacologists –, wreaks delirium and paralysis, and the 9th-century historian البلاذري (al-Balāḏuriyy) has died from drinking too much of it, hence his name. There was a pisgam for students: חזור חזור ואל תצטריך לבלאדור (hăzōr hăzōr wə-ʾal tiṣṭārēḵ lə-ḇalāḏūr, repeat, repeat, and you will not rely on marking-nut!)
  • The cashew-nut is a well-known ingredient of cuisine in the Modern Age, its genus Anacardium being only introduced from the New World.

Declension edit

References edit

  • بلاذر” in Almaany
  • bldwr”, in The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon Project, Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College, 1986–
  •   بلاذراوية‎ on the Arabic Wikipedia.Wikipedia ar
  • Brodt, Eliezer (2007-08-31), “In search of memory: towards an understanding of the Baladhur”, in The Seforim Blog PDF OAI[1]
  • Ciancaglini, Claudia A. (2008) Iranian loanwords in Syriac (Beiträge zur Iranistik; 28)‎[2], Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, page 71
  • Laufer, Berthold (1919) Sino-Iranica: Chinese contributions to the history of civilization in ancient Iran, with special reference to the history of cultivated plants and products (Fieldiana, Anthropology; 15), volume 3, Chicago: University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, page 482
  • Löw, Immanuel (1928) Die Flora der Juden[3] (in German), volume 1, Wien und Leipzig: R. Löwit, pages 202–204