Arabic

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Etymology 1

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From خ ر ج (ḵ-r-j) in the sense “to extract” or “take out”, with phono-semantic matching from Middle Persian apparently in an unattested by-form of by-itself Iranian-origin 𐫍𐫡𐫃 (hrg /⁠harg⁠/), 𐫟𐫡𐫃 (xrg /⁠xarg⁠/), 𐫆𐫡𐫵𐫃 (hrːg /⁠harg⁠/, tribute) surfacing as Old Armenian հարկ (hark) etc., an already Old Persian contamination *𐏃𐎼𐎠𐎣 (ha-ra-a-ka /⁠*harāka⁠/, tribute, tax, any public charge based on land property) on the model of Imperial Aramaic 𐡄𐡋𐡊𐡀 (hlkʾ /⁠hălāḵā⁠/, tribute, tax, any public charge based on land property), itself calqued from Akkadian 𒅋𒆪 (il-ku /⁠ilku⁠/, corvée, tribute, any public charge based on land property). Also attested several times in Biblical Aramaic הֲלָכָא (/⁠hălāḵā⁠/) but otherwise missing in Aramaic.

Noun

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خَرَاج (ḵarājm (plural أَخْرَاج (ʔaḵrāj) or أَخْرِجَة (ʔaḵrija))

  1. public levy, subsidy; poll-tax, tribute
Declension
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Descendants
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Etymology 2

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Root
خ ر ج (ḵ r j)
11 terms

Noun

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خُرَاج or خُرَّاج (ḵurāj or ḵurrājm (plural خُرَاجَات (ḵurājāt) or خُرَّاجَات (ḵurrājāt))

  1. abscess, boil, aposteme
Declension
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Alternative forms
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Descendants
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  • Ottoman Turkish: خراج (huraç, hurraç)

References

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  • hlk”, in The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon Project, Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College, 1986–
  • Burrow, Thomas (1935) “Iranian Words in the Kharoṣṭhi Documents from Chinese Turkestan—II”, in Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies[1], volume 7, number 4, page 788 of 779–790
  • Henning, Walter Bruno (1935) “Arabisch ḫarāǧ”, in Orientalia, volume 4 (Nova Series), →DOI, pages 291–293 = Henning, W. B. (1977) Selected Papers (Acta Iranica; 14)‎[2], volume 1, Tehran and Liège: Bibliothèque Pahlavi, pages 355–357
  • Kaufman, Stephen A. (1974) The Akkadian Influences on Aramaic (The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago Assyriological Studies; 19)‎[3], Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, →ISBN, page 58

Ottoman Turkish

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Etymology 1

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Borrowed from Arabic خَرَاج (ḵarāj, public levy; tribute).

Noun

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خراج (harac) (definite accusative خراجی (haracı), plural اخراج (ahrac))

  1. tax, impost, tribute, a compulsory financial charge or levy imposed by the government
    Synonym: ویركی (vergi)
  2. (Islam) jizya, a per capita tax levied on a section of an Islamic state's non-Muslim citizens
    Synonym: جزیه (cizye)
  3. poll tax, capitation, head tax, a tax determined as a uniform, fixed amount per individual
Derived terms
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Descendants
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Further reading

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Etymology 2

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Borrowed from Arabic خُرَاج (ḵurāj, abscess, boil, aposteme).

Noun

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خراج (hurac) (definite accusative خراجی (huracı), plural خراجات (huracat))

  1. pimple, furuncle, boil, pustule, a localized accumulation of pus in the skin, resulting from infection
    Synonyms: چبان (çıban), دمل (dummel), قبارجق (kabarcık)
  2. abscess, a cavity caused by tissue destruction filled with pus and surrounded by inflamed tissue
    Synonyms: چبان (çıban), دمل (dummel)
Descendants
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Further reading

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