See also: جود


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Etymology 1Edit

From Middle Persian BNPŠE / 𐭡𐭭𐭯𐭱𐭤(xwad), from Old Persian [script needed] (huva), from Proto-Iranian *hwá, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *swá (reflexive pronoun), from Proto-Indo-European *swé.[1] Related to خدا(xodâ, God).



خود (xod)

  1. self, the self


خود (xod)

  1. (reflexive) self, -self
    • c. 1260, Rumi, The Masnavi:
      حمله بر خود می‌‌کنی ای ساده مرد، همچو آن شیری که بر خود حمله کرد.‎‎
      hamle bar xod mi-koni ey sâde mard, hamčo ân šir-i ke bar xod hamle kard.
      You are attacking yourself, o simple man, like that lion who attacked himself.
    • 2009, Shadmehr Aghili (lyrics and music), “تقدیر (Taqdir)”:
      تو با خودت هم دشمنی.‎‎
      to bâ xod-et ham došman-i.
      You are an enemy even with yourself.
    Synonym: خویش(xiš, literary)
  2. (emphatic) one's own (in possessive constructions)
    مادر خود را نمی‌شناسی؟‎‎ (More literary)
    Mâdar-e xod-râ ne-mi-šenâsi?
    مادر خودت رو نمی‌شناسی؟‎‎ (More colloquial)
    Mâdar-e xod-et-o ne-mi-šnâsi?
    Don’t you recognize your own mother?
    Synonym: خویش(xiš, literary)
Usage notesEdit

خود (xod) can occur both in isolation and before a suffixed pronominal clitic such as م(-am, my), ت(-at/et, your), and ش(-aš/eš, his/her). In isolation, it serves as a general reflexive pronoun for any subject:

  • خود را دیدم
    xod-râ didam
    I saw [my]self
  • خود را دیدی
    xod-râ didi
    you saw [your]self

The pronominal clitics specify the pronoun:

  • خودم را دیدم
    xod-am-râ didam
    I saw myself
  • خودت را دیدی
    xod-at-râ didi
    you saw yourself

In colloquial Persian, the suffixed forms are almost always used.

Derived termsEdit
  • Assamese: খোদ (khüd)
  • Bengali: খোদ (khod)
  • Gujarati: ખુદ (khud)
  • Hindustani:
    Hindi: ख़ुद (xud)
    Urdu: خود(xud)
  • Marathi: खुद्द (khudda)
  • Punjabi:
    Gurmukhi: ਖ਼ੁਦ (xud)
    Shahmukhi: خود(xod)


  1. ^ Pokorny 992

Etymology 2Edit

From Middle Persian xwd (xōd, helm), borrowed from Parthian xwwd (*xōδ, helmet), from Old Iranian, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *kadʰ- (to guard, cover, care for, protect). The Parthian word is cognate with Old Persian 𐎧𐎢𐎭𐎠 (xaudā-, hat), Avestan 𐬑𐬀𐬊𐬜𐬀(xaoδa, helmet), Ossetian худ (xud, hat), English hat, hood, etc... The native inherited form of the Persian is خوی(xoy). Akin to Old Armenian խոյր (xoyr), արտախոյր (artaxoyr), Georgian ხვირი (xviri), Arabic خُوذَة(ḵūḏa), Iranian borrowings.



خود (xud) (plural خودها(xud-hâ))

  1. a helmet
    Synonym: ترگ(targ)

Derived termsEdit


  • Ačaṙean, Hračʿeay (1971–1979), “խոյր”, in Hayerēn armatakan baṙaran [Dictionary of Armenian Root Words] (in Armenian), 2nd edition, reprint of the original 1926–1935 seven-volume edition, Yerevan: University Press