Arabic

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Etymology 1

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From Proto-West Semitic *min. Cognate with Hebrew מִן (min).

Pronunciation

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Preposition

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مِنْ (min)

  1. having partitive effect: of, some of, parts of, one of
    • 609–632 CE, Qur'an, 11:78:
      أَلَيْسَ مِنْكُمْ رَجُلٌ رَشِيدٌ
      ʔalaysa minkum rajulun rašīdun
      Is there not a right-minded man among you?
  2. made of
    تِمْثَالٌ مِنَ الرُّخَامِ
    timṯālun mina ar-ruḵāmi
    a statue of marble
    خَاتَمٌ مِنْ ذَهَبٍ
    ḵātamun min ḏahabin
    a ring of gold, a gold ring
  3. containing, including
    كُوبٌ مِنَ الْقَهْوَةِ
    kūbun mina al-qahwati
    a cup of coffee
  4. pertaining to
  5. to wit
  6. from, away from, out of
  7. (time) at, on
  8. in relation to, with respect to
  9. due to, owing to
    مَاتَ مِنَ الْعَطَشِ
    māta mina al-ʕaṭaši
    He died of thirst.
  10. (used to construe certain verbs)
    تَمَكَّنُوا مِنْهُ
    tamakkanū minhu
    They took power over him.
  11. between; in contrast with
    مَيَّزَ الْجَيِّدَ مِنَ الرَّدِيءِ
    mayyaza l-jayyida mina ar-radīʔi
    He differentiated/discerned between the good and the bad
    عَرَفَ الْحَقَّ مِنَ الْبَاطِلِ
    ʕarafa l-ḥaqqa mina al-bāṭili
    He knew truth from falsehood
    • 609–632 CE, Qur'an, 2:220:
      وَٱللّٰهُ يَعْلَمُ الْمُفْسِدَ مِنَ الْمُصْلِحِ
      wa-llāhu yaʕlamu l-mufsida mina al-muṣliḥi
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)
  12. (chiefly in the negative) any
    هَلْ فِي ذَٰلِكَ مِنْ شَكٍّ؟
    hal fī ḏālika min šakkin?
    Is there any doubt about that?
    • 609–632 CE, Qur'an, 41:47:
      وَمَا تَحْمِلُ مِنْ أُنْثَىٰ وَلَا تَضَعُ إِلَّا بِعِلْمِهِ
      wamā taḥmilu min ʔunṯā walā taḍaʕu ʔillā biʕilmihi
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)
    • 609–632 CE, Qur'an, 35:3:
      هَلْ مِنْ خَالِقٍ غَيْرُ ٱللّٰهِ يَرْزُقُكُمْ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَاءِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ
      hal min ḵāliqin ḡayru llāhi yarzuqukum mina s-samāʔi wa-l-ʔarḍi
      Is there any creator other than Allah who provides for you from the heaven and earth?
  13. than (with comparatives)
Inflection
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    Inflected forms
Base form مِنْ (min)
Personal-pronoun-
including forms
Singular Dual Plural
Masculine Feminine Common Masculine Feminine
First person مِنِّي (minnī) مِنَّا (minnā)
Second person مِنْكَ (minka) مِنْكِ (minki) مِنْكُمَا (minkumā) مِنْكُمْ (minkum) مِنْكُنَّ (minkunna)
Third person مِنْهُ (minhu) مِنْهَا (minhā) مِنْهُمَا (minhumā) مِنْهُمْ (minhum) مِنْهُنَّ (minhunna)
Derived terms
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Descendants
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  • Maltese: minn

Etymology 2

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From Proto-Semitic *mann-. Cognates include Aramaic מן (man), Ge'ez መኑ (männu) and Amharic ማን (man).

Pronunciation

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Pronoun

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مَنْ (manm

  1. (interrogative) who?
  2. (interrogative) which?, which one?
  3. (relative) who, the one who, he who, those who, everyone who
  4. (conditional) whoever
    مَنْ جَدَّ وَجَدَ
    man jadda wajada
    seek and ye shall find
    (literally, “Whoever strives will find”)
    • 609–632 CE, Qur'an, 99:7-8:
      فَمَنْ يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْرًا يَرَهُ
      وَمَنْ يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ شَرًّا يَرَهُ
      fa-man yaʕmal miṯqāla ḏarratin ḵayran yarahu
      wa-man yaʕmal miṯqāla ḏarratin šarran yarahu
      So whoever does an atom's weight of good will see it,
      And whoever does an atom's weight of evil will see it.
Usage notes
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  • Grammatically a masculine singular, the pronoun is semantically gender- and number-neutral.
Derived terms
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Etymology 3

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Root
م ن ن (m-n-n)

The noun is modelled on a large scale upon Aramaic מַנָּא / ܡܢܐ (mannā) from the same root.

Verb

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مَنَّ (manna) I, non-past يَمُنُّ‎ (yamunnu)

  1. to be kind, kindly, benign, gracious, benevolent (عَلَى (ʕalā))
  2. to show, to grant, to confer (عَلَى (ʕalā))
  3. (obsolete) to cut off, to curtail
  4. (obsolete) to jade, to tire
  5. (obsolete) to decrease, to diminish, to reduce
  6. to reproach, to upbraid, to exprobrate [+accusative = with, the benefit received] [+ عَلَى (object) = whom]
    • 609–632 CE, Qur'an, 26:22:
      وَتِلْكَ نِعْمَةٌ تَمُنُّهَا عَلَيَّ أَنْ عَبَّدتَّ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ
      And this is the past favour wherewith thou reproachest me: that thou hast enslaved the Children of Israel.
Conjugation
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Noun

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مَنّ (mannm

  1. verbal noun of مَنَّ (manna) (form I)
  2. favor, benefit, blessing, boon
  3. gracious bestowal, gift, largess
  4. manna
    • 609–632 CE, Qur'an, 20:80:
      يَٰبَنِي إِسْرَاءِيلَ قَدْ أَنْجَيْنَٰكُمْ مِّنْ عَدُوِّكُمْ وَوَٰعَدْنَٰكُمْ جَانِبَ ٱلطُّورِ ٱلْأَيْمَنَ وَنَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْكُمُ ٱلْمَنَّ وَٱلسَّلْوَىٰ
      yābanī ʔisrāʔīla qad ʔanjaynākum mmin ʕaduwwikum wawāʕadnākum jāniba ṭ-ṭūri l-ʔaymana wanazzalnā ʕalaykumu l-manna was-salwā
      O sons of Israel, We did deliver you from your enemy and We did covenant with you on the right side of the Mount [Sinai] and We did send down unto you the manna and the quails.
    • 1865 CE, Bible (SVD), Book of Exodus, 16:35:
      وَأَكَلَ بَنُو إِسْرَاءِيلَ ٱلْمَنَّ أَرْبَعِينَ سَنَةً حَتَّىٰ جَاءُوا إِلَىٰ أَرْضٍ عَامِرَةٍ.
      waʔakala banū ʔisrāʔīla l-manna ʔarbaʕīna sanatan ḥattā jāʔū ʔilā ʔarḍin ʕāmiratin.
      And the sons of Israel have eaten the manna [for] forty years, until their coming to the land to be inhabited.
  5. (countable) a sweet liquid substance such as honey, nectar, or manna; honeydew
Declension
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Noun

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مَنّ (mannm (collective, singulative مَنَّة f (manna))

  1. aphid
Declension
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References

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  • Ahrens, Karl (1930) “Christliches im Qoran. Eine Nachlese”, in Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft[1] (in German), volume 84, page 25
  • Fraenkel, Siegmund (1880) De vocabulis in antiquis Arabum carminibus et in Corano peregrinis[2] (in Latin), Leiden: E. J. Brill, page 21
  • Jeffery, Arthur (1938) The Foreign Vocabulary of the Qurʾān (Gaekwad’s Oriental Series; 79), Baroda: Oriental Institute, pages 271–272

Etymology 4

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From Aramaic מָנָא (mānā), from Akkadian 𒈠𒉡𒌑 (manû), whence also Sumerian 𒈠𒈾 (ma-na /⁠mana⁠/) and Hebrew מָנֶה (mānḗ).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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مَنّ (mannm (plural أَمْنَان (ʔamnān))

  1. a historical unit of mass – translatable as mina or maund – varying usually between ca. 1–3 kilograms, however in some cases also going up over 40 kilograms.
Declension
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References

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  • Fraenkel, Siegmund (1886) Die aramäischen Fremdwörter im Arabischen (in German), Leiden: E. J. Brill, page 203
  • Kaufman, Stephen A. (1974) The Akkadian Influences on Aramaic (The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago Assyriological Studies; 19)‎[3], Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, →ISBN, page 69
  • Zimmern, Heinrich (1915) Akkadische Fremdwörter als Beweis für babylonischen Kultureinfluss (in German), Leipzig: A. Edelmann, page 20
  •   Mann (Einheit) on the German Wikipedia.Wikipedia de

Further reading

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  • Freytag, Georg (1837) “من”, in Lexicon arabico-latinum praesertim ex Djeuharii Firuzabadiique et aliorum Arabum operibus adhibitis Golii quoque et aliorum libris confectum[4] (in Latin), volume 4, Halle: C. A. Schwetschke, pages 211–212
  • Wehr, Hans (1979) “من”, in J. Milton Cowan, editor, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, 4th edition, Ithaca, NY: Spoken Language Services, →ISBN, pages 1084–1085

Azerbaijani

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Pronoun

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من

  1. Arabic spelling of mən (I)

Declension

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Baluchi

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Pronoun

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من (man)

  1. first-person singular subjective personal pronoun: I
Case Personal
1st person 2nd person
sg. Plural Inclusive Plural Default sg. sg. & pl.
Direct/Oblique من ماشما ما تئو شما
Object منا ماشمارا مارا ترا شمارا
Genitive منی مئےشمے مئے تئیی شمئے

References

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  1. Jahani, C. 2019. A Grammar of Modern Standard Balochi. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Studia Iranica Upsaliensia 36. 292 pp. Uppsala. ISBN 978-91-513-0820-3.

Central Kurdish

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Etymology

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Compare Persian من (man).

Pronunciation

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Pronoun

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Northern Kurdish ez
Southern Kurdish م (mi)

من (min)

  1. I
  2. me
  3. my, mine

See also

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Chagatai

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Etymology

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From Proto-Turkic *ben (I).

Pronoun

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من (män)

  1. I

Declension

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Karakhanid

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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From Proto-Turkic *ben (I). Cognate with Turkish ben (I), Turkish -im (first person singular suffix).

Pronoun

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من (men)

  1. I

Postposition

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من (men)

  1. Denotes "to be" for first person singular when at the end of an object; am.
  2. Denotes first person singular after various tenses.

Usage notes

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  • It can be said that the word acts as a suffix.

Khalaj

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Pronoun

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مَن (mən) (definite accusative مه‌نۆ, plural بیز)

  1. Arabic spelling of mən (I)

See also

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Khorasani Turkish

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Pronunciation

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Pronoun

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من (män)

  1. I

North Levantine Arabic

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Etymology 1

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From Arabic مِن (min, from, of, than). Possibly conflated with Arabic مُنْذُ (munḏu, since, for) in some senses.

Preposition

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من (min, mn, mni)

  1. than
  2. from, of
    تعبت من الحكي
    tʿibt mni l-ḥaki
    I’m tired of talking.
  3. ago
    شفتك من كم يوم
    šiftak min kam yōm
    I saw you a few days ago.
  4. since
    من إيام المدرسة مش حاكيين
    min ʾiyyām il-madrase miš ḥākyīn
    We haven't spoken since [our] school days.
Usage notes
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  • The underlying form is min, but the pronunciation is determined by the phonotactical environment. The medial -i- will usually be deleted following vowels (including epenthetic linking vowels as in the example above).
  • Suffixes are attached to the stem minn-, for example منك (minnak, from you). The third-person singular feminine merges with the first-person plural as منا (minna, from her; from us). However, the feminine may also be realized as منها (minha), and the plural occasionally as منِنا (minina, specifically /mɪnina/), to avoid confusion. (The latter change is rarer, but can be seen somewhat-more-commonly in analogous dialectical derivations of the stem إن (inn-, that).)

Conjunction

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من (min)

  1. since ... was/were; followed by a personal pronoun + و to express a now-untrue past state
    من أنا وصغير
    min ana w-ẓḡīr
    ever since I was little
    من نحنا وبالمدرسة مش حاكيين
    min niḥna w-bi-l-madrase mish ḥākyīn
    We haven't spoken since we were in school.

Etymology 2

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From Arabic مَا إنَّ (mā ʔinna).

Adverb

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من (mann)

  1. (false verb) not to be (always followed by a personal suffix)
    المحل منو مفتوح
    l-maḥall mannu maftūḥ
    The shop isn’t open.
Synonyms
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Ottoman Turkish

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Pronoun

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من (men)

  1. Alternative form of بن (ben, I)

Pashto

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Noun

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من (manm

  1. maund (unit of mass)

Persian

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Dari من
Iranian Persian
Tajik ман

Etymology 1

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From Middle Persian 𐫖𐫗 (man, me (early), I (later)) from Old Persian 𐎶𐎴 (m-n /⁠mana⁠/, me) from Proto-Iranian *máHm from Proto-Indo-Iranian *máHm (accusative singular of *aȷ́ʰám). Cognate with Sanskrit मा (, me), Avestan 𐬨𐬀𐬥𐬀 (mana, me), Ancient Greek ἐμέ (emé, accusative of "ἐγώ"), and Latin me (accusative of "ego").

Alternative forms

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Pronunciation

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Readings
Classical reading? man
Dari reading? man
Iranian reading? man
Tajik reading? man
  • Audio (Iran):(file)

Pronoun

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مَن (man)

  1. I
    Synonyms: (dated) بنده (bande), اینجانب (injâneb)
    من رفتم.man raftam.I went.
    او من را دید.u man râ did.He saw me.
  2. (generally with following را) me
    Synonyms: (dated) بنده (bande), اینجانب (injâneb)
  3. (at the end of a Genitive ezafe) my
Usage notes
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  • When acting as the grammatical object, the form من را (man râ) is used. Which can be contracted into مرا (marâ).
  • (colloquial, Iran) when acting as the grammatical object it is commonly contracted with را () into منو (mano).

See also

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Etymology 2

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From Middle Persian, from Akkadian 𒈠𒉡𒌑 (manû).

Noun

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مَن (man)

  1. maund (unit of mass)

Punjabi

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Etymology

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Inherited from Sanskrit मनस् (mánas), from Proto-Indo-European *ménos (mind), from *men- (to think).

Noun

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مَن (manm (Gurmukhi spelling ਮਨ)

  1. (literally) mind, intellect
  2. desire; wish
  3. intention

Declension

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Declension of من
dir. sg. مَن (man)
dir. pl. مَن (man)
singular plural
direct مَن (man) مَن (man)
oblique مَن (man) مَناں (manāṉ)
vocative مَنا (manā) مَنو (mano)
ablative مَنوں (manoṉ)
locative مَنے (mane) مَنِیں (manīṉ)
instrumental مَنے (mane) مَنِیں (manīṉ)

Further reading

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  • Iqbal, Salah ud-Din (2002) “من”, in vaḍḍī panjābī lughat‎ (in Punjabi), Lahore: ʻAzīz Pablisharz
  • من”, in Punjabi-English Dictionary, Patiala: Punjabi University, 2024

South Levantine Arabic

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Etymology

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From Arabic مِن (min, from, of, than).

Pronunciation

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Preposition

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من (min)

  1. from, of
    Antonyms: لـ (la-), على (ʕala)
  2. (time) since, for
    Antonyms: لـ (la-), حتى (ḥatta), لحد (la-ḥadd)
  3. than (with comparatives)
  4. such as, for example

Inflection

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    Inflected forms of من
Base form من (min)
Personal-pronoun-
including forms
singular plural
m f
1st person منّي (minni) منّا (minna)
2nd person منّك (minnak) منّك (minnek) منكم (minkom)
3rd person منّه (minno) منها (minha) منهم (minhom)

See also

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  • ممّا (mimma, than, conjunction)

Urdu

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Classical Persian من (man), ultimately from Akkadian 𒈠𒈾 (manûm).

Noun

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من (manm (Hindi spelling मन)

  1. maund (unit of mass)

Ushojo

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Etymology

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From Urdu من (man).

Noun

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من (man)

  1. maund (unit of mass)
  2. 50 kilos