See also: نقس

ArabicEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From the root ن ف س(n-f-s).

VerbEdit

نَفُسَ (nafusa) I, non-past يَنْفُسُ‎‎ (yanfusu)

  1. to be priceless, to be precious, to be valuable
ConjugationEdit

VerbEdit

نَفِسَ (nafisa) I, non-past يَنْفَسُ‎‎ (yanfasu)

  1. to be niggardly, to be stingy, to be sparing
ConjugationEdit

VerbEdit

نَفِسَ (nafisa) I, non-past يَنْفَسُ‎‎ (yanfasu)

  1. to envy, to begrudge
ConjugationEdit

VerbEdit

نَفِسَ (nafisa) I, non-past يَنْفَسُ‎‎ (yanfasu)
نُفِسَ (nufisa) I, non-past يُنْفَسُ‎‎ (yunfasu) (passive)

  1. to be in childbed
ConjugationEdit

VerbEdit

نَفَّسَ (naffasa) II, non-past يُنَفِّسُ‎‎ (yunaffisu)

  1. to comfort, to cheer up, to reassure, to appease
  2. to relieve, to dispel, to banish
  3. to air, to vent
  4. to uncover, to reveal, to voice
  5. to cease, to desist
  6. to let out air
  7. to be in childbed
ConjugationEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Semitic *napš-.

NounEdit

IPA(key): /nafs/

نَفْس (nafsf (plural نُفُوس(nufūs) or أَنْفُس(ʾanfus))

  1. self
    1. (plural أَنْفُس(ʾanfus)) in idafa with an enclitic pronoun attached to it
      نَفْسُهُ‎ ― nafsuhuhimself
      1. (plural أَنْفُس(ʾanfus)) as reflexive
        قَتَلَ نَفْسَهُ‎ ― qatala nafsahuHe killed himself. [reflexive]
        رَأَيْتُ نَفْسِي فِي ٱلْمِرْآةِ‎ ― raʾaytu nafsī fī l-mirʾātiI saw myself in the mirror.
      2. (plural أَنْفُس(ʾanfus)) as emphatic
        جَاءَنِي هُوَ نَفْسُهُ.‎‎
        jāʾanī huwa nafsuhu.
        He came to me himself or in person.
        • (Can we date this quote?), Ibn Hishām Al-Ansāriyy, Sharh Qatr Al-Nadā Wa-Ball Al-Sadā:
          وَأَمَّا قَوْلُ ٱلْعَرَبِ: «اِتَّقَى ٱللَّهَ ٱمْرُؤٌ فَعَلَ خَيْرًا يُثَبْ عَلَيْهِ» بِٱلْجَزْمِ، فَوَجْهُهُ أَنَّ «ٱتَّقَى ٱللَّهَ» وَ«فَعَلَ خَيْرًا» وَإِنْ كَانَا فِعْلَيْنِ مَاضِيَيْنِ ظَاهِرُهُمَا ٱلْخَبَرُ، إِلَّا أَنَّ ٱلْمُرَادَ بِهِمَا ٱلطَّلَبُ، وَٱلْمَعْنَى: لِيَتَّقِ ٱللَّهَ ٱمْرُؤٌ وَلْيَفْعَلْ خَيْرًا، وَكَذَٰلِكَ قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى: ﴿یَـٰۤأَیُّهَا ٱلَّذِینَ ءَامَنُوا۟ هَلۡ أَدُلُّكُمۡ عَلَىٰ تِجَـٰرَةࣲ تُنجِیكُم مِّنۡ عَذَابٍ أَلِیمࣲ ۝١٠ تُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦ وَتُجَـٰهِدُونَ فِی سَبِیلِ ٱللَّهِ بِأَمۡوَ ٰ⁠لِكُمۡ وَأَنفُسِكُمۡۚ ذَ ٰ⁠لِكُمۡ خَیۡرࣱ لَّكُمۡ إِن كُنتُمۡ تَعۡلَمُونَ ۝١١ یَغۡفِرۡ لَكُمۡ﴾ فَجَزْمُ يَغْفِرْ لِأَنَّهُ جَوَابٌ لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى: ﴿تُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦ وَتُجَـٰهِدُونَ﴾ لِكَوْنِهِ فِي مَعْنَى «آمِنُوا وَجَاهِدُوا»، وَلَيْسَ جَوَابًا لِلِٱسْتِفْهَامِ، لِأَنَّ غُفْرَانَ ٱلذُّنُوبِ لَا يَتَسَبَّبُ عَنْ نَفْسِ ٱلدَّلَالَةِ، بَلْ عَنِ ٱلْإِيمَانِ وَٱلْجِهَادِ.‎‎
          waʾammā qawlu l-ʿarabi: “ittaqā l-laha mruʾun faʿala ḵayran yuṯab ʿalayhi” bi-l-jazmi, fawajhuhu ʾanna “ttaqā l-laha” wa“faʿala ḵayran” waʾin kānā fiʿlayni māḍiyayni ẓāhiruhumā l-ḵabaru, ʾillā ʾanna l-murāda bihimā ṭ-ṭalabu, wal-maʿnā: liyattaqi l-laha mruʾun walyafʿal ḵayran, wakaḏālika qawluhu taʿālā: “yā ʾayyuhā llaḏīna ʾāmanū hal ʾadullukum ʿalā tijāratin tunjīkum min ʿaḏābin ʾalīmin? tuʾminūna bi-l-lāhi warasūlihī watujāhidūna fī sabīli l-lahi biʾamwālikum waʾanfusikum; ḏālikum ḵayrun lakum ʾin kuntum taʿlamūna, yaḡfir lakum” fajazmu yaḡfir liʾannahu jawābun liqawlihi taʿālā: “tuʾminūna bi-l-lahi warasūlihī watujāhidūna” likawnihi fī maʿnā “ʾāminū wajāhidū”, walaysa jawāban lilistifhāmi, liʾanna ḡufrāna ḏ-ḏunūbi lā yatasabbabu ʿan nafsi d-dalālati, bal ʿani l-ʾīmāni wal-jihādi.
          (please add an English translation of this quote)
  2. same used in the construct state, with a modifying noun in the genitive, or after the noun with an enclitic pronoun attached to it
    نَفْسُ ٱلشَّيْءِ‎ ― nafsu š-šayʾithe same thing
    فِي نَفْسِ ٱلْيَوْمِ، فِي ٱلْيَوْمِ نَفْسِهِ
    fī nafsi l-yawmi, fī l-yawmi nafsihi
    on the same day
  3. consciousness
  4. psyche, mind
  5. spirit, soul
  6. life, breath
  7. essence, nature
  8. inclination, appetite, proclivity
  9. personal identity
InflectionEdit
DeclensionEdit
SynonymsEdit
Derived termsEdit

NounEdit

IPA(key): /nafs/

نَفْس (nafsm (plural نُفُوس(nufūs) or أَنْفُس(ʾanfus))

  1. living creature, living being, human being, person
DeclensionEdit

NounEdit

IPA(key): /na.fas/

(file)

نَفَس (nafasm (plural أَنْفَاس(ʾanfās))

  1. verbal noun of نَفِسَ (nafisa) (form I)
  2. verbal noun of نَفُسَ (nafusa) (form I)
  3. breath
  4. puff, draw (of smoke)
  5. gulp, draught
  6. freedom, liberty, convenience, discretion
DeclensionEdit
DescendantsEdit
  • Azerbaijani: nəfəs
  • Baluchi: نپس(napas)
  • Indonesian: napas, nafas
  • Malay: nafas
  • Persian: نفس(nafas)
  • Swahili: nafasi
  • Turkish: nefes
  • Uzbek: nafas

ReferencesEdit

  • Dozy, Reinhart Pieter Anne (1881) , “نفس”, in Supplément aux dictionnaires arabes (in French), volume 2, Leiden: E. J. Brill, pages 700–701
  • Freytag, Georg (1837) , “نفس”, in Lexicon arabico-latinum praesertim ex Djeuharii Firuzabadiique et aliorum Arabum operibus adhibitis Golii quoque et aliorum libris confectum (in Latin), volume 4, Halle: C. A. Schwetschke, page 313
  • Wehr, Hans (1979) , “نفس”, in J. Milton Cowan, editor, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, 4th edition, Ithaca, NY: Spoken Language Services, →ISBN, pages 1155–1556

Moroccan ArabicEdit

Root
ن ف س

Etymology 1Edit

From Arabic نَفَّسَ(naffasa).

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

نفس (naffas) (form II, non-past ينفس(ynaffas))

  1. to vent, to air
  2. to let out air
  3. to fart on (someone)
    نفستينا يا صاحبي!‎‎
    naffastīna ya sāḥbi
    You farted on us, dude!
ConjugationEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Arabic نَفْس(nafs).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

نفس (nafsm

  1. same used in the construct state, with a modifying noun, or after the noun with an enclitic pronoun attached to it
    نفس الشي‎ ― nafs eš-šithe same thing
    فنفس اليوم، فاليوم نفسه‎ ― f-nafs el-yūm, f-el-yūm nafsuon the same day
  2. life, breath
  3. inclination, appetite, proclivity

PersianEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Arabic نَفَس(nafas).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

نفس (nafas) (plural نفس‌ها(nafas-hâ) or انفاس(anfâs))

  1. breath
Derived termsEdit
Related termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Arabic نَفْس(nafs).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

نفس (nafs) (plural نفس‌ها(nafs-hâ) or نفوس(nofus))

  1. soul, self
  2. psyche
  3. spirit, mind
  4. personal identity