See also: نقس

ArabicEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From the root ن ف س(n-f-s).

VerbEdit

نَفُسَ (nafusa) I, non-past يَنْفُسُ‎‎ (yanfusu)

  1. to be priceless, to be precious, to be valuable
ConjugationEdit

VerbEdit

نَفِسَ (nafisa) I, non-past يَنْفَسُ‎‎ (yanfasu)

  1. to be niggardly, to be stingy, to be sparing
ConjugationEdit

VerbEdit

نَفِسَ (nafisa) I, non-past يَنْفَسُ‎‎ (yanfasu)

  1. to envy, to begrudge
ConjugationEdit

VerbEdit

نَفِسَ (nafisa) I, non-past يَنْفَسُ‎‎ (yanfasu)
نُفِسَ (nufisa) I, non-past يُنْفَسُ‎‎ (yunfasu) (passive)

  1. to be in childbed
ConjugationEdit

VerbEdit

نَفَّسَ (naffasa) II, non-past يُنَفِّسُ‎‎ (yunaffisu)

  1. to comfort, to cheer up, to reassure, to appease
  2. to relieve, to dispel, to banish
  3. to air, to vent
  4. to uncover, to reveal, to voice
  5. to cease, to desist
  6. to let out air
  7. to be in childbed
ConjugationEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Semitic *napš-.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

نَفْس (nafsf (plural نُفُوس(nufūs) or أَنْفُس(ʾanfus))

  1. self
    1. (plural أَنْفُس(ʾanfus)) in idafa with an enclitic pronoun attached to it
      نَفْسُهُ‎ ― nafsuhuhimself
      1. (plural أَنْفُس(ʾanfus)) as reflexive
        قَتَلَ نَفْسَهُ‎ ― qatala nafsahuHe killed himself. [reflexive]
        رَأَيْتُ نَفْسِي فِي ٱلْمِرْآةِ‎ ― raʾaytu nafsī fī l-mirʾātiI saw myself in the mirror.
      2. (plural أَنْفُس(ʾanfus)) as emphatic
        جَاءَنِي هُوَ نَفْسُهُ.‎‎
        jāʾanī huwa nafsuhu.
        He came to me himself or in person.
        • a. 1360, Ibn Hishām Al-Ansāriyy, Sharh Qatr Al-Nadā Wa-Ball Al-Sadā:
          وَأَمَّا قَوْلُ ٱلْعَرَبِ: «اِتَّقَى ٱللَّهَ ٱمْرُؤٌ فَعَلَ خَيْرًا يُثَبْ عَلَيْهِ» بِٱلْجَزْمِ، فَوَجْهُهُ أَنَّ «ٱتَّقَى ٱللَّهَ» وَ«فَعَلَ خَيْرًا» وَإِنْ كَانَا فِعْلَيْنِ مَاضِيَيْنِ ظَاهِرُهُمَا ٱلْخَبَرُ، إِلَّا أَنَّ ٱلْمُرَادَ بِهِمَا ٱلطَّلَبُ، وَٱلْمَعْنَى: لِيَتَّقِ ٱللَّهَ ٱمْرُؤٌ وَلْيَفْعَلْ خَيْرًا، وَكَذَٰلِكَ قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى: ﴿یَـٰۤأَیُّهَا ٱلَّذِینَ ءَامَنُوا۟ هَلۡ أَدُلُّكُمۡ عَلَىٰ تِجَـٰرَةࣲ تُنجِیكُم مِّنۡ عَذَابٍ أَلِیمࣲ ۝١٠ تُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦ وَتُجَـٰهِدُونَ فِی سَبِیلِ ٱللَّهِ بِأَمۡوَ ٰ⁠لِكُمۡ وَأَنفُسِكُمۡۚ ذَ ٰ⁠لِكُمۡ خَیۡرࣱ لَّكُمۡ إِن كُنتُمۡ تَعۡلَمُونَ ۝١١ یَغۡفِرۡ لَكُمۡ﴾ فَجَزْمُ يَغْفِرْ لِأَنَّهُ جَوَابٌ لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى: ﴿تُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦ وَتُجَـٰهِدُونَ﴾ لِكَوْنِهِ فِي مَعْنَى «آمِنُوا وَجَاهِدُوا»، وَلَيْسَ جَوَابًا لِلِٱسْتِفْهَامِ، لِأَنَّ غُفْرَانَ ٱلذُّنُوبِ لَا يَتَسَبَّبُ عَنْ نَفْسِ ٱلدَّلَالَةِ، بَلْ عَنِ ٱلْإِيمَانِ وَٱلْجِهَادِ.‎‎
          waʾammā qawlu l-ʿarabi: “ittaqā l-laha mruʾun faʿala ḵayran yuṯab ʿalayhi” bi-l-jazmi, fawajhuhu ʾanna “ttaqā l-laha” wa“faʿala ḵayran” waʾin kānā fiʿlayni māḍiyayni ẓāhiruhumā l-ḵabaru, ʾillā ʾanna l-murāda bihimā ṭ-ṭalabu, wal-maʿnā: liyattaqi l-laha mruʾun walyafʿal ḵayran, wakaḏālika qawluhu taʿālā: “yā ʾayyuhā llaḏīna ʾāmanū hal ʾadullukum ʿalā tijāratin tunjīkum min ʿaḏābin ʾalīmin? tuʾminūna bi-l-lāhi warasūlihī watujāhidūna fī sabīli l-lahi biʾamwālikum waʾanfusikum; ḏālikum ḵayrun lakum ʾin kuntum taʿlamūna, yaḡfir lakum” fajazmu yaḡfir liʾannahu jawābun liqawlihi taʿālā: “tuʾminūna bi-l-lahi warasūlihī watujāhidūna” likawnihi fī maʿnā “ʾāminū wajāhidū”, walaysa jawāban lilistifhāmi, liʾanna ḡufrāna ḏ-ḏunūbi lā yatasabbabu ʿan nafsi d-dalālati, bal ʿani l-ʾīmāni wal-jihādi.
          (please add an English translation of this quote)
  2. same used in the construct state, with a modifying noun in the genitive, or after the noun with an enclitic pronoun attached to it
    نَفْسُ ٱلشَّيْءِ‎ ― nafsu š-šayʾithe same thing
    فِي نَفْسِ ٱلْيَوْمِ، فِي ٱلْيَوْمِ نَفْسِهِ
    fī nafsi l-yawmi, fī l-yawmi nafsihi
    on the same day
  3. consciousness
  4. psyche, mind
  5. spirit, soul
  6. life, breath
  7. essence, nature
  8. inclination, appetite, proclivity
  9. personal identity
InflectionEdit
    Inflected forms
Base form نَفْسُ (nafsu)
Personal-pronoun-
including forms
Singular Dual Plural
Masculine Feminine Common Masculine Feminine
First person نَفْسِي(nafsī) أَنْفُسُنَا(ʾanfusunā)
Second person نَفْسُكَ(nafsuka) نَفْسُكِ(nafsuki) أَنْفُسُكُمَا(ʾanfusukumā) أَنْفُسُكُمْ(ʾanfusukum) أَنْفُسُكُنَّ(ʾanfusukunna)
Third person نَفْسُهُ(nafsuhu) نَفْسُهَا(nafsuhā) أَنْفُسُهُمَا(ʾanfusuhumā) أَنْفُسُهُمْ(ʾanfusuhum) أَنْفُسُهُنَّ(ʾanfusuhunna)
    Inflected forms
Base form نَفْسَ (nafsa)
Personal-pronoun-
including forms
Singular Dual Plural
Masculine Feminine Common Masculine Feminine
First person نَفْسِي(nafsī) أَنْفُسَنَا(ʾanfusanā)
Second person نَفْسَكَ(nafsaka) نَفْسَكِ(nafsaki) أَنْفُسَكُمَا(ʾanfusakumā) أَنْفُسَكُمْ(ʾanfusakum) أَنْفُسَكُنَّ(ʾanfusakunna)
Third person نَفْسَهُ(nafsahu) نَفْسَهَا(nafsahā) أَنْفُسَهُمَا(ʾanfusahumā) أَنْفُسَهُمْ(ʾanfusahum) أَنْفُسَهُنَّ(ʾanfusahunna)
    Inflected forms
Base form نَفْسِ (nafsi)
Personal-pronoun-
including forms
Singular Dual Plural
Masculine Feminine Common Masculine Feminine
First person نَفْسِي(nafsī) أَنْفُسِنَا(ʾanfusinā)
Second person نَفْسِكَ(nafsika) نَفْسِكِ(nafsiki) أَنْفُسِكُمَا(ʾanfusikumā) أَنْفُسِكُمْ(ʾanfusikum) أَنْفُسِكُنَّ(ʾanfusikunna)
Third person نَفْسِهِ(nafsihi) نَفْسِهَا(nafsihā) أَنْفُسِهِمَا(ʾanfusihimā) أَنْفُسِهِمْ(ʾanfusihim) أَنْفُسِهِنَّ(ʾanfusihinna)
DeclensionEdit
SynonymsEdit
Derived termsEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

نَفْس (nafsm (plural نُفُوس(nufūs) or أَنْفُس(ʾanfus))

  1. living creature, living being, human being, person
DeclensionEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /na.fas/
  • (file)

NounEdit

نَفَس (nafasm (plural أَنْفَاس(ʾanfās))

  1. verbal noun of نَفِسَ (nafisa) (form I)
  2. verbal noun of نَفُسَ (nafusa) (form I)
  3. breath
  4. puff, draw (of smoke)
  5. gulp, draught
  6. freedom, liberty, convenience, discretion
DeclensionEdit
DescendantsEdit
  • Maltese: nifs
  • Azerbaijani: nəfəs
  • Baluchi: نپس(napas)
  • Malay: nafas
  • Persian: نفس(nafas)
  • Swahili: nafasi
  • Turkish: nefes
  • Uzbek: nafas

ReferencesEdit

  • Dozy, Reinhart Pieter Anne (1881), “نفس”, in Supplément aux dictionnaires arabes (in French), volume 2, Leiden: E. J. Brill, pages 700–701
  • Freytag, Georg (1837), “نفس”, in Lexicon arabico-latinum praesertim ex Djeuharii Firuzabadiique et aliorum Arabum operibus adhibitis Golii quoque et aliorum libris confectum (in Latin), volume 4, Halle: C. A. Schwetschke, page 313
  • Wehr, Hans (1979), “نفس”, in J. Milton Cowan, editor, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, 4th edition, Ithaca, NY: Spoken Language Services, →ISBN, pages 1155–1556

Moroccan ArabicEdit

Root
ن ف س

Etymology 1Edit

From Arabic نَفَّسَ(naffasa).

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

نفس (naffas) (form II, non-past ينفس(ynaffas))

  1. to vent, to air
  2. to let out air
  3. to fart on (someone)
    نفستينا يا صاحبي!‎‎
    naffastīna ya sāḥbi
    You farted on us, dude!
ConjugationEdit
    Conjugation of نفس
singular plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
past m نفّست(naffast) نفّستي(naffasti) نفّس (naffas) نفّسنا(naffasna) نفّستوا(naffastu) نفّسوا(naffsu)
f نفّست(naffsāt)
non-past m ننفّس(nnaffas) تنفّس(tnaffas) ينفّس(ynaffas) ننفّسوا(nnaffsu) تنفّسوا(tnaffsu) ينفّسوا(ynaffsu)
f تنفّسي(tnaffsi) تنفّس(tnaffas)
imperative m نفّس (naffas) نفّسوا(naffsu)
f نفّسي(naffsi)

Etymology 2Edit

From Arabic نَفْس(nafs).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

نفس (nafsm

  1. same used in the construct state, with a modifying noun, or after the noun with an enclitic pronoun attached to it
    نفس الشي‎ ― nafs eš-šithe same thing
    فنفس اليوم، فاليوم نفسه‎ ― f-nafs el-yūm, f-el-yūm nafsuon the same day
  2. life, breath
  3. inclination, appetite, proclivity

PersianEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Arabic نَفَس(nafas).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

نفس (nafas) (plural نفس‌ها(nafas-hâ) or انفاس(anfâs))

  1. breath
Derived termsEdit
Related termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Arabic نَفْس(nafs).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

نفس (nafs) (plural نفس‌ها(nafs-hâ) or نفوس(nofus))

  1. soul, self
  2. psyche
  3. spirit, mind
  4. personal identity

South Levantine ArabicEdit

Root
ن ف س

Etymology 1Edit

From Arabic نَفْس(nafs).

NounEdit

نفس (nafsm (plural أنفس(ʔanfos) or نفوس(nufūs))

  1. soul, spirit, psyche, mind
  2. desire, appetite
    Synonym: شهيّة(šahiyye)

PronounEdit

نفس (nafs-)

  1. (with personal suffix) -self, -selves (reflexive pronoun)
    أنا أقنعت نفسي.‎‎ ― ʔana ʔaʔnaʕt nafsiI convinced myself.
    Synonym: حال(ḥāl-)
InflectionEdit
    Inflected forms of نفس
Base form نفس (nafs)
Personal-pronoun-
including forms
singular plural
m f
1st person نفسي(nafsi) نفسنا(nafsna)
2nd person نفسك(nafsak) نفسك(nafsek) نفسكم(nafskom)
3rd person نفسه(nafso) نفسها(nafsha) نفسهم(nafshom)

PrepositionEdit

نفس (nafs)

  1. same
    هادا نفس الشي.‎‎ ― hāda nafs iš-šīThat's the same thing.

Etymology 2Edit

From Arabic نَفَّسَ(naffasa).

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /naf.fas/, [ˈnaf.fas]
  • (file)

VerbEdit

نفس (naffas) (form I, present بنفّس(binaffes))

  1. to breathe out, to exhale
    Antonym: تنفّس(tnaffas)
  2. (intransitive) to deflate
ConjugationEdit
    Conjugation of نفّس (naffas)
singular plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
past m نفّست (naffast) نفّست (naffast) نفّس (naffas) نفّسنا (naffasna) نفّستو (naffastu) نفّسو (naffasu)
f نفّستي (naffasti) نفّست (naffasat)
present m بنفّس (banaffes) بتنفّس (bitnaffes) بنفّس (binaffes) مننفّس (minnaffes) بتنفّسو (bitnaffsu) بنفّسو (binaffsu)
f بتنفّسي (bitnaffsi) بتنفّس (bitnaffes)
subjunctive m انفّس (anaffes) تنفّس (tnaffes) ينفّس (ynaffes) ننفّس (nnaffes) تنفّسو (tnaffsu) ينفّسو (ynaffsu)
f تنفّسي (tnaffsi) تنفّس (tnaffes)
imperative m نفّس (naffes) نفّسو (naffsu)
f نفّسي (naffsi)

Etymology 3Edit

From Arabic نَفَس(nafas).

NounEdit

نفس (nafasm

  1. breathing, breath
  2. nargileh, hookah, water pipe
    Synonym: أرجيلة(ʔargīle)