दण्ड

SanskritEdit

Alternative scriptsEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from substrate language. Kuiper argues for a loanword from Para-Munda; compare Mundari ଦାଣ୍ଡି (dāṇḍi, small stick), Santali ᱫᱚᱬᱴᱚ (dôṇṭô, thick stick, club), ᱫᱚᱬᱴᱤᱴᱤᱛ (dôṇṭiṭit, stem of mushrooms), ᱫᱚᱬᱰᱤ (dôṇḍi, stick, staff, stalk). Likewise, Southworth suggests a Dravidian substratum, from Proto-Dravidian *taṇṭa (stick, club).

Alternatively, but less likely, a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *dóru (tree), whence दारु (dā́ru), and thus cognate with Ancient Greek δένδρον (déndron, tree), but both this and that Greek word are phonologically difficult to explain.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

दण्ड (daṇḍám

  1. stick, staff, rod, pole, cudgel, club
    1. staff given at investiture with the sacred thread
    2. penis (with वैतस (vaitasá)
    3. trunk » शुण्डादण्ड (śuṇḍā-daṇḍa)
    4. "arm" or "leg" » दोर्दण्ड (dor-daṇḍa), बाहुदण्ड (bāhu-daṇḍa)
    5. "tusk" » दंष्ट्रादण्ड (daṃṣṭrā-daṇḍa)
  2. penis
  3. a stalk, stem (of a tree; compare इक्षुदण्ड (ikṣu-daṇḍa), उद्दण्ड (ud-daṇḍa), खरदण्ड (khara-daṇḍa))
  4. the staff of a banner
  5. the handle (of a ladle, sauce-pan, fly-flap, parasol etc.)
  6. the steam of a plough
  7. "a mast" » महादण्डधर (mahādaṇḍa-dhara)
  8. the crossbar of a lute which holds the strings
  9. the stick with which a lute is played
  10. a churning-stick (compare दण्डाहत (daṇḍā*hata))
  11. a pole as a measure of length (= 4 hastas)
  12. name of a measure of time (= 60 विकला (vi-kalā)s)
  13. name of a staff-like appearance in the sky ("Name of a planet" L.; compare दण्डभास (daṇḍa-bhāsa))
  14. name of a constellation
  15. a form of military array (compare दण्डव्युह (daṇḍa-vyuha))
  16. line
  17. staff or sceptre as a symbol of power and sovereignty, application of power, violence
  18. power over (genitive or in compound), control, restraint (compare वाग्दण्ड (vāg-daṇḍa), मनोदण्ड (mano-daṇḍa), कायदण्ड (kāya-daṇḍa) [कर्मदण्ड (karma-daṇḍa)]; त्रिदण्डिन् (tri-daṇḍin))
  19. the rod as a symbol of judicial authority and punishment, punishment (corporal, verbal, and fiscal; chastisement and imprisonment, reprimand, fine)
  20. pride
  21. horse
  22. Punishment (son of Dharma and Kriyā)
  23. Yama
  24. Shiva
  25. name of an attendant of the Sun
  26. (g. शिवादि (śivā*di) and शौनकादि (śaunakā*di)) name of a man with the patronymic औपर (aupara)
  27. name of a prince slain by Arjuna (brother of दण्डधर (daṇḍa-dhara), identified with the asura क्रोधहन्तृ (krodha-hantṛ))
  28. name of a rakṣas

DeclensionEdit

Masculine a-stem declension of दण्ड (daṇḍá)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative दण्डः
daṇḍáḥ
दण्डौ
daṇḍaú
दण्डाः / दण्डासः¹
daṇḍā́ḥ / daṇḍā́saḥ¹
Vocative दण्ड
dáṇḍa
दण्डौ
dáṇḍau
दण्डाः / दण्डासः¹
dáṇḍāḥ / dáṇḍāsaḥ¹
Accusative दण्डम्
daṇḍám
दण्डौ
daṇḍaú
दण्डान्
daṇḍā́n
Instrumental दण्डेन
daṇḍéna
दण्डाभ्याम्
daṇḍā́bhyām
दण्डैः / दण्डेभिः¹
daṇḍaíḥ / daṇḍébhiḥ¹
Dative दण्डाय
daṇḍā́ya
दण्डाभ्याम्
daṇḍā́bhyām
दण्डेभ्यः
daṇḍébhyaḥ
Ablative दण्डात्
daṇḍā́t
दण्डाभ्याम्
daṇḍā́bhyām
दण्डेभ्यः
daṇḍébhyaḥ
Genitive दण्डस्य
daṇḍásya
दण्डयोः
daṇḍáyoḥ
दण्डानाम्
daṇḍā́nām
Locative दण्डे
daṇḍé
दण्डयोः
daṇḍáyoḥ
दण्डेषु
daṇḍéṣu
Notes
  • ¹Vedic

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Monier Williams (1899), “दण्ड”, in A Sanskrit–English Dictionary, [], new edition, Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, →OCLC, page 0466.
  • Witzel, Michael (1999), “Substrate Languages in Old Indo-Aryan (Ṛgvedic, Middle and Late Vedic)”, in (please provide the title of the work)[1], archived from the original on 2012-02-06, Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies, 5 (1).
  • Turner, Ralph Lilley (1969–1985), “danda”, in A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages, London: Oxford University Press, page 350