See also: , स़, से, सु-, and स-

U+0938, स
DEVANAGARI LETTER SA

[U+0937]
Devanagari
[U+0939]

Translingual edit

 

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /sə/ (may vary by language)

Letter edit

(sa)

  1. The third sibilant of the Devanagari script. Linguistically it is considered an alveolar sibilant.

See also edit

Ligatures:

Dhivehi edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

(sa)

  1. The seventeenth consonant in Dhivehi, written in Devanagari

Hindi edit

Pronunciation edit

  • (Delhi Hindi) IPA(key): /sə/, [sɐ]

Letter edit

(sa)

  1. the thirty-second consonant in Hindi
  2. (music) the first note of the Hindi musical scale

See also edit

Konkani edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Sanskrit षष् (ṣáṣ), from Proto-Indo-European *swéḱs (six). Cognate with Hindi छह (chah), Marathi सहा (sahā).

Numeral edit

(sa/so) (Latin script sov, Kannada script )

  1. six

Marathi edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /sə/
  • (file)

Letter edit

(sa)

  1. The thirty-first consonant in Marathi.

Nepali edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

(sa)

  1. The thirty-second consonant in Nepali.

Pali edit

Alternative forms edit

Pronoun edit

(sa)

  1. Devanagari script form of sa

Adjective edit

(sa)

  1. Devanagari script form of sa, which is masculine nominative singular of (ta, that)

Noun edit

(sa)

  1. Devanagari script form of sa, which is vocative singular of सन् (san, dog)

Sanskrit edit

Alternative scripts edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Letter edit

(sa)

  1. the last of the three sibilants, /s/

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Indo-Aryan *sá, *sáH, *tád, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *sá, *sáH, *tád, from Proto-Indo-European *só, *séh₂, *tód. Cognate with Ancient Greek (ho), (), τό (), Old Church Slavonic тъ (), та (ta), то (to), Old English se (whence English the). Compare also the suppletive-stem feminine and neuter forms सा (sā́), तद् (tád).

Pronoun edit

(m

  1. (distal, 3rd person pronoun) he
  2. (masculine) that
Usage notes edit

The final s of the nominative m sás is dropped before all consonants (except before /p/ in RV. v, 2, 4, and before /t/ in RV. viii, 33, 16) and appears only at the end of a sentence in the form of visarga. sa occasionally blends with another vowel (as in saī*ṣaḥ) and it is often for emphasis connected with another pronoun as with अहम् (aham), त्वम् (tvam), एष (eṣa), अयम् (ayam) etc.

सो ऽहम्स त्वम्so ʼhamsa tvamI (or thou) that very person; cf. under तद् (tád)

The verb then following in the 1st and 2nd person even if aham or tvam be omitted

स त्वा पृच्छामिsa tvā pṛcchāmiI that very person ask you
स वै नो ब्रूहिsa vai no brūhido thou tell us

Similarly, to denote emphasis, with भवान् (bhavān)

स भावन् विजयाय प्रतिष्ठताम्sa bhāvan vijayāya pratiṣṭhatāmlet your Highness set out for victory

It sometimes (and frequently in the Brāhmaṇas) stands as the first word of a sentence preceding a relatve pronoun or adverb such as (ya), यद् (yad), यदि (yadi), यथा (yathā), चेद् (ce*d); in this position sa may be used pleonastically or as a kind of indeclinable, even where another gender or number is required

स यदि स्थावरा आपो भनन्तिsa yadi sthāvarā āpo bhanantiif those waters are stagnant

In the Sāṃkhya sa, like एष (eṣa), (ka), and (ya), is used to denote पुरुष (puruṣa), "the Universal Soul".

The locative singular form सस्मिन् (sásmin) is only attested in the Rigveda.

Declension edit
Declension of
Nom. sg. सः, (saḥ, sa)
Gen. sg. तस्य (tasya)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative सः, (saḥ, sa) तौ (tau) ते (te)
Vocative
Accusative तम् (tam) तौ (tau) तान् (tān)
Instrumental तेन (tena) ताभ्याम् (tābhyām) तैः (taiḥ)
Dative तस्मै (tasmai) ताभ्याम् (tābhyām) तेभ्यः (tebhyaḥ)
Ablative तस्मात्, ततः (tasmāt, tataḥ) ताभ्याम्, ततः (tābhyām, tataḥ) तेभ्यः, ततः (tebhyaḥ, tataḥ)
Genitive तस्य (tasya) तयोः (tayoḥ) तेषाम् (teṣām)
Locative तस्मिन्, सस्मिन् (tasmin, sasmin) तयोः (tayoḥ) तेषु (teṣu)
Descendants edit
  • Garhwali: सु (su)
  • Mandeali: से (se)
  • Kashmiri: سُہ (suh)
  • Pali: so, sa (rare)
  • Prakrit: 𑀲𑁄 (so)

Etymology 3 edit

From Proto-Indo-European *sm̥- (whole, all, together (with)), from the root *sem-.

Prefix edit

(sa)

  1. an inseparable prefix expressing "junction", "conjunction", "possession" (as opposed to a privative), "similarity", "equality"
  2. when compounded with nouns to form adjectives and adverbs it may be translated by "with", "together or along with", "accompanied by", "added to", "having", "possessing", "containing", "having the same"
    सकोप (sa-kopa)full of anger, enraged, displeased
    साग्नि (sā*gni)together with the fire
    सभार्य (sa-bhārya)with a wife, having a wife
    सद्रोण (sa-droṇa)with a droṇa added to a droṇa
    सधर्मन् (sa-dharman)having the same duties
    सवर्ण (sa-varṇa)having the same colour or appearance, similar, like
  3. "-ly"
    सकोपम् (sa-kopam)angrily
    सोपधि (so*padhi)fraudulently
Derived terms edit

Etymology 4 edit

Noun edit

() stem?

  1. (prosody) an anapest

Etymology 5 edit

Noun edit

() stem?

  1. (music) Abbreviation of षड्ज (ṣaḍ-ja).

Etymology 6 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun edit

() stemm

  1. a snake
  2. air, wind
  3. a bird
  4. name of Vishnu or Shiva
Declension edit
Masculine a-stem declension of ()
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative सः
sáḥ
सौ / सा¹
saú / sā́¹
साः / सासः¹
sā́ḥ / sā́saḥ¹
Vocative
सौ / सा¹
saú / sā́¹
साः / सासः¹
sā́ḥ / sā́saḥ¹
Accusative सम्
sám
सौ / सा¹
saú / sā́¹
सान्
sā́n
Instrumental सेन
séna
साभ्याम्
sā́bhyām
सैः / सेभिः¹
saíḥ / sébhiḥ¹
Dative साय
sā́ya
साभ्याम्
sā́bhyām
सेभ्यः
sébhyaḥ
Ablative सात्
sā́t
साभ्याम्
sā́bhyām
सेभ्यः
sébhyaḥ
Genitive सस्य
sásya
सयोः
sáyoḥ
सानाम्
sā́nām
Locative से
सयोः
sáyoḥ
सेषु
séṣu
Notes
  • ¹Vedic

Noun edit

(sa) stemn

  1. knowledge
  2. meditation
  3. a carriage road
  4. a fence
Declension edit
Neuter a-stem declension of ()
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative सम्
sám
से
सानि / सा¹
sā́ni / sā́¹
Vocative
से
सानि / सा¹
sā́ni / sā́¹
Accusative सम्
sám
से
सानि / सा¹
sā́ni / sā́¹
Instrumental सेन
séna
साभ्याम्
sā́bhyām
सैः / सेभिः¹
saíḥ / sébhiḥ¹
Dative साय
sā́ya
साभ्याम्
sā́bhyām
सेभ्यः
sébhyaḥ
Ablative सात्
sā́t
साभ्याम्
sā́bhyām
सेभ्यः
sébhyaḥ
Genitive सस्य
sásya
सयोः
sáyoḥ
सानाम्
sā́nām
Locative से
सयोः
sáyoḥ
सेषु
séṣu
Notes
  • ¹Vedic

Etymology 7 edit

From the root √सन् (√san, to procure, bestow, give, distribute).

Adjective edit

()

  1. procuring, bestowing (only at the end of a compound)
    पशुष (paśu-ṣá)bestowing cattle
    प्रियस (priyá-sá)granting desired objects

References edit