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Ancient GreekEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Indo-European *wr̥s-, zero-grade of *wers- (male). Cognates include Sanskrit ऋषभ (ṛṣabha), वृषन् (vṛṣan), वृष (vṛṣa), Latin verrēs, Old Persian [script needed] (aršan), and Old Armenian առն (aṙn).

PronunciationEdit

 

AdjectiveEdit

ᾰ̓́ρσην (ársēnm or f (neuter ᾰ̓́ρσεν); third declension (Epic, Ionic, Tragic)

  1. male
    • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 8.7:
      μήτέ τις οὖν θήλεια θεὸς τό γε μήτέ τις ἄρσην πειράτω διακέρσαι ἐμὸν ἔπος
      mḗté tis oûn thḗleia theòs tó ge mḗté tis ársēn peirátō diakérsai emòn épos
      Let no god, neither female nor male, essay to thwart my word.
  2. masculine, manly, strong
    • 408 BCE, Euripides, Orestes 1204:
      ὦ τὰς φρένας μὲν ἄρσενας κεκτημένη, τὸ σῶμα δ᾽ ἐν γυναιξὶ θηλείαις πρέπον
      ô tàs phrénas mèn ársenas kektēménē, tò sôma d᾽ en gunaixì thēleíais prépon
      O you that have a masculine spirit, though your body shows you to be a woman!
  3. (of plants) coarse, tough
    • 497 BCE – 405 BCE, Sophocles, Women of Trachis 1196:
      πολλὴν μὲν ὕλην τῆς βαθυρρίζου δρυὸς κείραντα, πολλὸν δ᾽ ἄρσεν᾽ ἐκτεμόνθ᾽ ὁμοῦ ἄγριον ἔλαιον
      pollḕn mèn húlēn tês bathurrhízou druòs keíranta, pollòn d᾽ ársen᾽ ektemónth᾽ homoû ágrion élaion
      There hew the wood of deeply-rooted oaks and slash the trunks of wild tough olive trees.
  4. (grammar) masculine
    • 423 BCE, Aristophanes, The Clouds 682:
      ἔτι δή γε περὶ τῶν ὀνομάτων μαθεῖν σε δεῖ, ἅττ᾽ ἄρρεν᾽ ἐστίν, ἅττα δ᾽ αὐτῶν θήλεα
      éti dḗ ge perì tôn onomátōn matheîn se deî, hátt᾽ árrhen᾽ estín, hátta d᾽ autôn thḗlea
      You must learn one thing more about names, what are masculine and what of them are feminine.

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